Multiple European countries originally traded with India, but the British won out and established exclusive control.
In China, the British dominated trade early on, and as they succeeded, more and more countries piled on.
In India, the British established a true colony, running the government and directing huge internal projects.
In China, Europeans and the Japanese established spheres of influence, focusing on the economic benefits of trade with no overall governmental responsibilities.
Therefore, when independence movements began in India, the efforts were directed against Britain, the foreign occupier. In contrast, when the people wanted to change the government in China, they targeted the Manchu (Qing) Dynasty.