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KIN 485: Chapters 7-13 study guide
Terms in this set (98)
What is a group?
Two or more people who interact and exert mutual influence on each other
Characteristics of a group
-collective sense of identity
-structured modes of communication
How are groups and teams related?
For both groups and teams, members may be attracted to each other and have some common goals.
What is a sports team?
A sport team is a special TYPE OF GROUP. Teams have four key characteristics beyond mutual interaction and task interdependence.
Four key characteristics of a team
-Collective sense of identity-"we" instead of "I"
-Distinctive roles-all members know their job
-Structured modes of communication
-Norms-social rules that guide members on what to do and not do
What are the group development theories?
Linear Perspective, Cyclical Perspective, Pendular Perspective,
Forming-development of team structure, familiarizing
Storming- interpersonal conflict, rebellion, resistance to leader
Norming- development of solidarity and cooperation, resolved
Performing-channeling of energies for team success
Development of groups similar to the lifecycle-- birth, growth, and death, lasts about 10-15 weeks roughly
shifts occur in interpersonal relationships during the growth and development of groups
Stages of Group Development
orientation, differentiation and conflict, resolution and cohesion, differentiation and conflict, termination
What are group roles?
behaviors required or expected of a person occupying a certain position
What are formal roles? (coach, instructor, captain, etc.)
dictated by the nature and structure of the organization
What are informal roles? (enforcer, mediator, etc.)
evolve from the groups dynamics or interactions among group members
What is role clarity?
the degree of understanding one has about his or her role responsibilities
What is role conflict?
exists when role occupant does not have sufficient ability, motivation, time, or understanding to achieve the goal
What is role acceptance?
- What an individual is willing to do and the extent of his or her acceptance of how others see their roles on the team.
What is social support?
when mutual respect and support enhance team climate
What is proximity?
closer contact between members promotes team interaction
What is distinctiveness?
the more distinctive the group feels, the better the climate
What is fairness?
Non-judgmental, deals with situations objectively
How do individual skills relate to group performance?
Greater the need for cooperation and interaction in a task, the more the importance of individual ability decreases and the importance of group productivity increases. Teams of equal ability tend to play best.
What is group cohesion?
the dynamic process related in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs
What is task cohesion?
the degree to which group members work together to achieve common goals and objectives
What is social cohesion?
The interpersonal attractions among group members
How do you build team cohesion in exercise settings?
Create an atmosphere of high group cohesion
Sports settings: team building exercises, clear and meaningful roles, communication, personal sacrifice
Five step process for clarifying goals
1. Identity team goals
2. Individual team members identify potential team values
3. Team discusses how values support team goals
4. Gain consensus on top five to seven team values
5. Prioritize team values
What are group norms?
a level of performance, pattern of behavior, or belief. Leaders need to establish positive group norms or standards for productivity
Who are emergent leaders?
-individuals who emerge from a group and take charge (captain of intramural team, student leader of an exercise class)
Who are prescribed leaders?
individuals appointed by some authority to a leadership position
Leaders in organized sports teams
-Highly successful sport organizations executives
-Communicate and manage their staffs by finding a balance between supporting and challenging
-Facilitate the development of group cohesion and influence the attitudes of their direct reports
What is the importance of PST (physiological skills training)?
Psychological factors primarily account for day to day fluctuations in performance. Impossible to separate brain from body function, training mind is just as important as training the body
What are the misconceptions of psychological skills training?
-Is a problem for athletes only
-Is for elite athletes only
-Provides quick-fix solutions(this is not realistic, takes time)
-It is not useful
What is the goal of PST?
To be able to monitor and self regulate his or her own emotional state
What is self regulation?
the ability to work toward one's short and long term goals by effectively monitoring and managing one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
What are the three phases of PST?
Educational, Acquisition, Practice
What is the practice phase?
practice perfect performance, focus on automating skills through over learning, simulating competition, keep records-feedback, practice
What is the acquisition phase?
focus on strategies and techniques, individual learning and practicing, more general with groups, more specific with one person, tailor to individual needs
What is the educational phase?
give the information, increase awareness of mental skills, tell client why it is important and what they are going to do, taught and learned.
Green light- move on
Yellow light- some things uncomfortable with
Red light- work on for sure
What is a type of anxiety reduction technique?
Stress inoculation training
What is stress inoculation training (SIT)?
-multimodal anxiety reduction
-an individual is exposed to and learns to cope with stress (via productive thoughts, mental images, and self statements) in increasing amounts, thereby enhancing his or her immunity to stress
What do multimodal anxiety reduction programs teach participants?
how to cope with stress
Four steps to stress inoculation training (SIT)
1. Prepare for the stressor. ("It's going to be rough; keep your cool.")
2. Control and handle the stressor. ("Keep your cool since he's losing his cool.")
3. Cope with feelings of being overwhelmed. ("Keep focused; what do you have to do next?")
4. Evaluate coping efforts. ("You handled yourself well.")
What are some other stress relief techniques?
-wear rubber band on your wrist
-Eat/drink foods high in Vit. C
- Chew gum
-Paint or draw
-Spend time with pets
-Eat dark chocolate
Relaxation Exercises (emotional control skills)
-Somatic, body to mind (breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation)
-Cognitive, mind to body (meditation)
What are some types of body-mind relaxation exercises?
-Progressive (muscle) relaxation
Types of body-mind relaxation exercises?
-Benson's relaxation response
Where does deep breathing begin? What does it facilitate?
Diaphragm, feelings of relaxation, strengthening of the cardiovascular system, increase oxygen to the blood, help with healing process
What is relaxation training?
People can be trained to relax their muscles at will, a process that sometimes reduces feelings of anxiety, mind body connection
What are some muscle to mind techniques?
Deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, automaticity
What are some PMR examples?
Right /Left hand, shoulders, abdomen, thighs
What are some mind-to-muscle techniques?
-Meditation (Bensons relaxation response) simple cognitive techniques
-Imagery, attentional control, thought-stopping
-Autogenic Training (AT)- form of self hypnosis
What is Smith's cognitive-affective stress management model?
Combines muscle relaxation (PMR) and cognitive restructuring into an "integrated coping response"
-Rehearse under conditions that cause anxiety/stress
What are problem-focused coping strategies?
-Efforts to alter or manage the problems that are causing stress (goal setting, time management, self-talk)
-Use when situation CAN be changed
What are emotion-focused coping strategies?
Regulating the emotional responses to the problem that causes the stress
-Use when situation CANNOT be changed
-Can control your reactions
What is imagery?
-visualization, mental rehearsal, symbolic rehearsal, covert practice, and mental practice
-involves creating or recreating an experience in your mind
What are the types of imagery?
-Cognitive: mental practice
-Motivational: thoughts and emotions, confidence, anxiety, affect of response
What is coping imagery?
problems, rehab, deal with injury, appropriate coping responses
What is mastery imagery?
great performance, better own performance, imagine yourself doing well
What are the senses used in imagery?
Visual, kinesthetic, auditor, tactile, and olfactory
Muscle memory, imagery produces muscle innervation
symbolic learning theory
mental blueprint to acquire new skills, imagery develops mental code
psychophysiological, information-processing, connecting muscle and mental
not a theory, optimal arousal/attentional state
Where do athletes use imagery?
More in competition than in training
When do athletes use imagery?
Before, during, and after practice; outside of practice; before, during, or after competition; and for injury rehabilitation.
Why do athletes use imagery?
For motivational and cognitive functions
Functions of motivational imagery
motivational mastery and arousal
Functions of cognitive imagery?
Cognitive specific and general
What is the overall use of imagery?
choosing a comfortable style that produces clear, controllable images
What are the factors in the effectiveness of imagery?
-Nature of the task
-Skill level of the performer
-Combination with practice
What is the attention-arousal set theory?
Imagery assists in reaching optimal arousal
What is psychological skills hypothesis?
Imagery enhances feelings of confidence, reduces anxiety levels, and increases concentration
What are the two keys to effective imagery?
vividness and controllability
What is vividness?
-Forms unique and striking mental images, uses all sense to make as vivid as possible
What is controllability?
Learn to manipulate your images so they do what you want them to
What are the phases in injury rehab regarding imagery?
1. Initial injury
3. Return to sport
How does pain management relate to imagery?
What is healing imagery?
a healing image is one that symbolizes recovery, creates a mindset for healthy healing
What are the different types of communication?
-interpersonal (two people exchange), verbal and nonverbal
-intrapersonal (self talk), communication we have with ourselves
What are the purposes of communication?
persuasion, evaluation, information, motivation, problem solving
5 step communication process
1. Decision to send a message about something
2. Encoding of the message by the sender
3. Channel through which the message is transmitted to receiver
4. Decoding of the message by the receiver
5. Internal response by the receiver to the message
breakdowns in communication
Sender failures: Poorly transmitted messages (ambiguity, inconsistency)
Receiver failures: Failure to listen carefully (misinterpretation)
strategies to improve communication
Express empathy, not sympathy.
Use a communication style that is comfortable for you.
Learn how to become more empathetic by placing yourself in the shoes of your athletes or students.
Use the positive approach when communicating.
Always acknowledge the greetings of others.
Have an open-door policy for your students and athletes.
Be consistent in administering discipline.
barriers to affective communication
no attention; lack of trust; socilization; differences in mental set; embarrassment; false speaking; difficulties in expression; belief that silence is safer; inconsistency
How to improve communication
Carefully designed interpersonal communication training can improve team morale, cohesion, and performance. Don't interrupt; confront issues soon; don't assume; ask for help; express opinions; make eye contact
What stage of team development is best for team building?
50-70% of the information conveyed is nonverbal
What is the most important part of improving communication?
express empathy, not sympathy
What are the six C's of communication?
Three Phases of PST
A process of learning that uses symbols such as words, mental images, and other cognitive associations- blue print
individual performance decreases as the number of people in the group increases
the tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task
Norming phase of linear perspective
development of cooperation
Somatic refers to what?
body to mind- breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation
Cognitive refers to what?
mind to body- meditation (benson), autogenic training
a relaxation technique (mind to body), form of hypnosis, targets muscle groups, warm and heavy sensations
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