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33 terms

Biology Reproduction test

Glenbrook south, biology studies. Ericksen. 2010
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Asexual reproduction
reproduction by a single parent which produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
Binary Fission
splitting in half of a one-celled organism. Examples: bacteria, amoeba, paramecium, and euglena
Budding
asexual reproduction in animals in which a new organism is produced by means of an outgrowth that breaks off from the parent's body wall. Examples: hydra, anemones, and fungi such as yeast
Conjugation
process in which paramecia and some prokaryotes exchange genetic material. may occur across a bridge of cytoplasm .
Parthenogenesis
Females of some species produce eggs that develop without being fertilized. Examples: aphids, bees, ants
Sexual reproduction
haploid gametes (egg and sperm formed by meiosis) from two parents unite to form diploid zygote. may increase genetic diversity.
Hermaphrodites
have both male and female organs
External Fertilization
Egg fertilized outside the female's body. Embryo develops outside the female's body. Requires water and large numbers of eggs and sperm.
Decreased chance of fertilization.
Internal Fertilization
Egg fertilized inside the female's body. Embryo develops inside the female's body. Requires specialized organs and mating rituals
Increased chance of fertilization with smaller number of gametes.
Oviparous
embryo develops in egg outside parent's body
Ovoviviparous
embryo develops in egg inside mother's body; rely on yolk
Viviparous
Viviparous - embryo
Metamorphosis
process of changes in shape and form of a larva into an adult
Incomplete Metamorphosis
gradual growth of an arthropod that involves change in size, but not form
complete Metamorphosis
egg, larva, pupa, adult
Scrotum
external sac which holds the testes. The scrotum helps maintain a temperature which is 1-3o C lower than body temperature.
Testes
produce sperm and the hormone testosterone. They are made up of seminiferous tubules (site of sperm production)
Epididymis
site of sperm maturation and storage; tails develop here.
Vas deferens
passageway for sperm from the testes to the urethra. Collects fluids from 3 different glands to produce seminal fluids (fluids + sperm = semen)
Seminal vesicle
produces fluid with sugar (fructose) to give sperm energy
Prostate gland
adds more fluid to nourish sperm
Bulbourethral (Cowper's )gland
secretes fluid into urethra for lubrication and acid neutralization
Urethra
passageway for urine and semen to exit the body; starts at the bladder and travels out through the penis
Penis
external organ which deposits semen into the female
male puberty
or Maturation. is signaled by the hormone FSH which stimulates the testes to produce testosterone.
Shoulders broaden, Larynx enlarges, Pubic hair grows, Facial hair grows, Muscles develop
Ovaries
produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone. They also contain follicles that mature into ova (eggs).
Fallopian tubes
(oviducts) are the passageway from the ovary to the uterus. Fertilization usually takes place here. Cilia line the oviduct to help sweep the ovum to the uterus.
Uterus
(womb) muscular organ that develops a lining that will nourish a fertilize egg. This is the structure in which a fetus will develop.
Cervix
opening between the uterus and vagina.
Vagina
(birth canal) location where sperm are deposited, and passage for baby during normal birth.
Female Puberty
Widening of the hips,Development of breasts, Maturation of the reproductive system, Growth of pubic hair, Beginning of the menstrual cycle
LH
lutenizing hormone
FSH
follicle stimulating hormone