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Two ways federalism decentralizes politics and policy making

-states make their own laws
-senators are elected to represent their own individual states


to transfer government power to smaller regions

Three supreme laws of the land

-laws of national government

Why is the Tenth Amendment significant?

It states that certain powers not listed in the consitution are reserved for the people.

Enumerated powers

Listed powers

Implied powers

Powers not listed, but are assumed to be given

Three general obligations each state has to every other state under the Constitution

-Full Faith and Credit
-Privilieges and Immunities

How is dual fredalism analogous to a layer cake?

Dual federalism is like a layer cake because the "layers" of Federal gov't and state gov't are clearly defined and seperated.

How is cooperative federalism analogous to a marble cake?

Cooperative federalism is like a marble cake because the State and Federal governments are mixed in together with no discernable start or end.

Three general standard operating procedures of cooperative federalism

-Shared costs
-Federal Guidelines
-Shared administration

What are "cross-over sactions"?

It's when federall governments use federal money in one program to influence a state or local policy in another. For example- the federal government stopped all highway construction until the states raised the legal drinking age.

What are "cross-cutting requirements?"

Cross cutting requirements are those that are required by any entity that receives federal mony - be they states, organizations, municipalities. One of the most common requirements is non-discrimination based on gender, race, religion, ethnicity, etc. There are no exceptions. These regulations cut across all programs touched by the federal government.

Two types of categorical grants

-Project Grants
-Formula Grants

What are formula grants?

A formula grant is a US federal grant specifying a precise formula in the legislation creating the program. Formula Grants include quantifiable elements, such as population, amount of tax effort, proportion of population unemployed or below poverty level, density of housing, or rate of infant mortality.

What are project grants?

The funding, for fixed or known periods, of specific projects. Project grants can include fellowships, scholarships, research grants, training grants, etc.

A reason state or local governments might want to receive federal aid

They may have to pass laws they don't want to in order to receive aid

Four advantages of federalism for democracy

-More participation in politics
-Increased access to government
-More economic interests
-Parties can still be powerful but not be IN power

Factors of Popular Sovereignty

-Gov't gets authortity and stregnth from the people
-Consent of the governed

Factors of Limited Goverment

-Gov't can only do what people give it power to
-Gov't is subject to the law- never above it
-Functions and powers of the government are stated in a written constitution that limits what the gov't can and cannot do
- No government is all powerful

Factors of Seperation of Powers

-Governments power is divided among three branches of government
-Each branch has different responsibilities:
*Legislative= Congress
*Executive powers= President and his office
*Judicial powers= Supereme court

Factors of Checks and Balances

-Government structured so each of the three branches has some power over the actions of the other branches
Each is NOT independent of one another

Factors of Judicial Review

-Power of courts to decide if what the government does is in agreement with the constitution
-Power to declare state and national laws unconstitutional
-Not stated in the constitution, but agreed upon principle

Factors of Federalism

-Division of power between national government and state government
-Independent states bound together by national government
-People are governed by both central and regional governments.
Central= National government, Regional= State and Local governments

Factors of Representative Government

-People elect reps who govern on their behalf
-Also called a "republic" or "republican government."

Forms of Lobbying

-Lobbying firms
-Law firms
-Full time "in house" lobbyists hired by public interest groups, companies, and large non profit organizations.

The "Revolving Door" (Lobbying)

Former members of congress/executive branch members who go into lobbying

3 Ways Interest Groups Shape Policy

-Money to potential candidates (PACs)
-Encourage their members to vote

3 Ways Interest Groups Shape Policy (Through Court)

-Litigation (lawsuits)
-Amicus Curiae Briefs (Friend of the court briefs)

Keys to Successful Interest Groups

* active involved members are always better
*level of commitment and passion about an issue

Olsons Law of Large Groups

Olsons Law of Large Groups states that the bigger a group, the fewer intense members there are.

Growth in Lobbying firms on K Street

1961- 365 lobbying firms
2009- 13,249 lobbying firms

Interest Groups are...

Groups of people that share a public policy goal, want to influence change in public policy, and are linkage institutions that connect people to public policy

Public Interest Groups

-Have common causes

Free Rider Problem

When people benefit from the work of interest groups without becoming members

Economic Interest Groups

The primary purpose is to advance the economic interest of their members


-6 year terms
-Staggered elections 1/3 of senate runs for re-election every 2 years
-Statewide office


-2 year terms
*All 435 members are up for re-election every 2 years
-Each members reps a single district
*About 650,000 voters in each district

Mid-term Elections

-Congressional elections occour between presidential elections
*2010 midterm elections

Steps to Become an Office Holder

-Announce candidancy
*incumbent, challenger, open seat
-Primary Election
*Date depending on state
-Campaigning Season
*August- Early November

The election is..

The first tuesday after the first monday in november on even numbered years and the winner is sworn in on January 3rd the following year

Franking is..

Free mail to constituents

Free media coverage..

Is generally unwanted. When a candidate is given free coverage, they can't control what is said about them

Paid media coverage...

Is generally wanted. When a candidate pays for media coverage, they can control what is said about them

Strategies to Control the Media

-Isolating the candidate from the media
-Holding staged media events
-Using spin
-Appearing on talk shows or in candidate debates

Primary Elections

Elections where party nominees are selected

General Elections

Elections where office holders are selected

Ballot Measures

Elections that choose options on policy


Election that gives boters a chance to bote on proposed laws and amendments to state constitution


Process that allows citizens to propose new laws and let voters vote on it


Election where voters can remove an elected official from the office

Closed Primary

Primaries where only registered party members may vote

Open Primary

Primaries where everyone can vote


Where the winner with the majority of the votes wins

3 M's of capaigning

-Media attention


Endorsement of a candidate for office by a political party


Person running for elective office

Campaign Strategy

Mastergame plan the candidates lay out to guide their electoral campaign


All elligible voters


Widely shared belief that the democratic government was elected fairly and freely


Current office holder up for re-election


Organized effort by candidates to influence the electorate's vote


People who will be represented/whom the candidate hopes to attract

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