Pathophysiology Chapter 25
Terms in this set (38)
Hormones from the anterior pituitary gland control levels of
Thyroid hormone, adrenal cortical hormones, and sex hormones
Secretion of parathyroid hormone is regulated by
The level of ionized calcium (Ca2+) in the blood
The function of the thyroid hormone can be described in terms of
Metabolic rate of all body cells
The polyuria associated with diabetes is a result of:
The osmotic effect of glycosuria
Which of the following does NOT occur in Addison's disease
Which of the following factors will determine the clinical effects of an endocrine disorder
The sex of the patient, The level of the dysfunction, The age of an individual
Which of the following are the result of antibody action against the cells in the gland
based on the hormone FSH. What is the name of this hormone? What is its function? What gland produces it?
Follicle stimulating hormone. to stimulate the production of eggs and sperm. anterior piruitary gland
based on the hormone ADH. What is its name? What is its function? What is the name of the gland that produces it?
Antidiuretic hormone. Stimulates the reabsorbion of water in the kidneys. Posterior Pituitary gland
The production and control of the thyroid hormone system as well as its pathway is:
Produced by thyroid but regulated by TSH. TSH is stimulated by the hypothalmus
Cretinism is a disorder found in infants as a result of a congenital absnece of a _________ gland
How are the secretions of the pituitary gland controlled?
Tropic hormones (regulate other endocrine glands). Regulated by level of hormone produced by the target gland. Self-regulating mechanism maintains uniform hormone output. Prolactin secretion controlled by prolactin inhibitory factor. Thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates release of prolactin and thyroid hormones
One of the disorders of this system is a tumor in the pituitary gland. How is this type of tumor diagnosed? How is it treated?
Anterior lobe pituitary tumors can be functional, which are tumors that still produce hormones or nonfunctional tumors which do not produce hormones. Functional tumors are diagnosed because of the amount of hormones that are produced and the nonfunctional ones because of the problems they cause in the area in the brain because of the size of the tumor. Treatment is also based on the amount of hormones and size of tumor. Drugs can shrink the tumor and other drugs can suppress the amount of growth hormone secretion but in most cases it takes surgical removal followed by radiation.
What are the symptoms of overproduction of growth hormone? What is this condition called?
Pituitary gigantism in children which causes excessive height while acromegaly occurs in adults because their epiphyses have already fused so thickening and coarsening of bones and enlargement of the viscera happens.
What are the symptoms of overproduction of prolactin?
Amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome which is spontaneous secretion of milk and cessation of menstrual periods.
What is the function of the hormone calcitonin?
Lowers blood calcium and regulates the level of calcium in the blood.
What are the characteristics of hyperthyroidism?
Rapid pulse, Increased metabolism, Hyperactive reflexes, Emotional lability, GI effect: diarrhea, Warm, moist skin
What are the characteristics of hypothyroidism?
Slow pulse, Decreased metabolism, Sluggish reflexes, Placid and phlegmatic, GI effect: constipation, Cold, dry skin
What is a goiter?
An enlargement of the thyroid gland. Can produce excessive amounts of hormones causing hyperthyroidism like symptoms.
How hyperthyroidism treated?
Anti-thyroid drugs, thyroidectomy, large doses of radioactive iodine
How hypothyroidism treated?
administration of thyroid hormone
What is Graves disease?
AKA toxic goiter, a form of hyperthyroidism also an autoimmune disease. Caused by anti-thyroid antibody that stimulates gland. Mimics effects of TSH but not subject to normal control mechanisms. Might be a swelling of the neck and protrusion of the eyes resulting from an overactive thyroid gland.
What are the characteristics of Chronic thyroiditis?
An autoimmune disease in which an autoantibody destroys thyroid tissue which results in hypothyroidism. An immunologic reaction, not from an infection Cellular infiltration from an immunologic reaction between antigen and antibody
What are the 3 types of thyroid cancer?
well-differentiated carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma and medullary carcinoma
young adults, low grade malignancy, most common is papillary carcinoma which is covered by well-differentiating thyroid epithelial cells. Treatment is surgical removal of thyroid gland.
older persons, rapidly growing bizarre tumor cells with a poor prognosis. Treatment is surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy.
uncommon tumor derived from calcitonin secreting parafollicicular of the thyroid.
What is tetany?
A condition marked by intermittent muscular spasms, caused by malfunction of the parathyroid glands and low calcium in the blood.
What are the characteristics of hyperparathyroidism?
Result of hormone secreting parathyroid adenoma. Increase of hormone causes hypercalcemia which pulls calcium from bones causes brittle bones, Excessive calcium in urine as well. Can cause cacium stones in urine also can cause kidney lung and tissue injury. Treatment is surgical removal of tumor.
What are the characteristics of hypoparathyroidism?
Usually from accidental removal of parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery. Effects are hypocalcemia: blood calcium falls precipitously which leads to neuromuscular excitability and tetany. Treatment: raise calcium levels. High-calcium diet. Supplementary vitamin D
A corticosteroids like hydrocortisone. Cortisol. Involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats and have anti
involved with maintaining electrolyte, water and salt balance in the body.
is a mineralocorticoid. Major hormone that stimulates absorption of sodium by the kidneys and so regulates water and salt balance.
hormone system is main stimulus. It regulates blood pressure and water (fluid) balance. When blood volume is low, juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys activate their prorenin and secrete renin directly into circulation.
androgenic (testosteronelike) steroid hormone in respose to ACTH stimulation which is further metabolized into testosterone and estrogen.
What are the characteristics of Addison's Disease?
An adrenal cortical hypofunction, also a Autoimmune disorder. It is a deficiency of all steroid hormones; Glucocorticoid deficiency resulting in hypoglycemia. Mineralocorticoid deficiency which is low blood volume and low blood pressure. Hyperpigmentation: from increased ACTH due to loss of feedback inhibition. The treatment: administration of corticosteroids
What are the characteristics of Cushing's Disease?
Excessive production of adrenal corticosteroids. Glucocorticoid excess: disturbed carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. Mineralocorticoid excess: high blood volume and high blood pressure. Treatment: tumor removal. Causes are: Hormone-producing pituitary microadenoma, Hormone-producing adrenal cortex adenoma, Hyperplastic adrenal glands, Administration of large amounts of corticosteroid, Other tumors
What are the effects of stress on the endocrine system?
This is the overall disruption of homeostasis. 2 main responses generated by intensity and duration. Examples are physical trauma like surgery or injury, prolonged exposure to cold, vigorous exercise, strong fear. Acute which is short term effects the sympathetic system (flight of flight) and adrenal medulla, chronic which is long term effects several endocrine glands mainly adrenal cortex but also hypothalamic-releasing hormones and excessive cortisol production. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.