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61 terms

Human Bio Muscles

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frontalis
o: cranial aponeurosis
i: skin of eyebrows
a: elevates eyebrows
sternocleidomastoid
o: sternum, clavicle
i: temporal bone
a: elevate/rotates head
rectus abdominus
o: pubis
i: sternum, ribs
a: flex vertebral column
Sartorious
o: ilium
i: tibia
a: flex tibia
rectus femoris
o: ilium
i: tibia
a: extends tibia
tibialis anterior
o: tibia
i: metatarsals
a: dorsiflex/invert metatarsals (foot)
gastrocnemius
o: femur
i: calcaneus
a: plantar flex foot
vastus lateralis
o: femur
i: tibia
a: extends tibia
external oblique
o: ribs
i: ilium
a: flex/rotate vertebral column
biceps brachii
o: humerus
i: radius
a: flex radius
pectoralis major
o: sternum
i: humerus
a: medially rotate humerus
deltoid
o: scapula, clavicle
i: humerus
a: abduct humerus
trapezius
o: occipital bone, cervical/thoracic vertebrae
i: scapula, clavicle
a: elevates scapula
latissimus dorsi
o: spinal chord, ilium
i: humerus
a: extend/adduct humerus
gluteus medius
o: ilium
i: femur
a: abducts femur
gluteus maximus
o: sacrum, ilium
i: femur
a: extends femur
biceps femoris
o: ischium
i: tibia
a: flex tibia
semitendinosus
o: ischium
i: tibia
a: flex tibia
soleus
o: tibia/fibula
i: calcaneus
a: plantar flex foot
vastus medialis
o: femur
i: tibia
a: extend tibia
adductor muscles
o: ischium
i: femur
a: adduct femur
triceps brachii
o: humerus
i: ulna
a: extend ulna
endomysium
covers each muscle fiber
perimysium
covers each fascicle
epimysium
covers entire muscle
aponuerosis
flat, cordlike tendon
smooth muscle
no striations, involuntary
sarcolemma
plasma membrane
myofibrils
long, ribbonlike nueclei
sarcomeres
smallest contractile unit
myofilaments
threadlike protein inside sarcomere
thick (myosin) filament
made up of protein myosin, contain ATPase enzymes (split ATP to generate power of muscle contraction)
crossbrigdes
link thick and thin filaments together during contraction
thin (actin) filaments
made up of protein actin, plus regulatory proteins that play a role in allowing or preventing myosin head-binding to actin
sarcoplasmic reticulum
specialized, smooth endoplasmic reticulum; sacs and tubules surround each myofibril
muscle twitches
...
fused (complete) tetanus
when the muscle is stimulated so rapidly that no evidence of relaxation is seen ad the contractions are completely smooth and sustained
unfused (incomplete) tetanus
until the muscle reaches fused tetanus
lactic acid
what pyruvic acid in converted into during glycolysis
anaerobic glycolysis
...
muscle fatigue
when a muscle is unable to contract even though it is being stimulated
isotonic contractions
the myofilaments are successful in their sliding movements, the muscle shortens, movement occurs
isometric contractions
contractions in which the muscles do not shorten
muscle tone
state of continuous partial contractions, result of different motor units being stimulated by the nervous system in a systematic way
aerobic/endurance
greater resistance to fatigue
resistance/isometric
muscles are pitted against some immovable object, or nearly so
flexion
decreases the angle of the joint and brings two bones closer together
extension
increases the angle between two bones
rotation
movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis
abduction
moving a limb away from the midline
adduction
movement of a limb toward the midline
circumduction
proximal end of the limb is stationary and its distal end moves in a circle
supination
radius and ulna are parallel
pronation
radius rotates over ulna
synergists
help prime movers by producing the same movement or removing undesireable movements
fixators
specialized synergists; hold a bone still or stabilize the origin of a prime mover so all tension can be used to move the insertion
circular
when the fascicles are arranged in concentric rings
convergent
fascicles converge toward a single insertion tendon
fusiform
spindle shaped muscle with an expanded belly
pennate
short fascicles attach obliquely to a central tendon
parallel
the length of the fascicles run parallel to the long axis of the muscle