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AP Gov Supreme Court Cases Rulings
Terms in this set (70)
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
Supreme Court ruled separate but equal is unconstitutional and deemed segregation in public schools unconstitutional
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Supreme Court ruled it is the right of the Supreme Court to declare a law or an act unconstitutional.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Supreme Court ruled that separate but equal is constitutional
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
Supreme Court ruled slaves were deemed as property
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Supreme Court ruled that ONLY congress has the power to regulate interstate commerce.
Re-asserted the supremacy clause
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Supreme Court ruled on "implied powers", first case that brought the issue of state v. national power. Brought in the SUPREMACY CLAUSE
U.S. v Lopez (1995)
Supreme Court ruled that you cannot use interstate commerce for anything, cannot bring guns to higher education facilities, and sets boundaries for interstate commerce
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
Supreme Court ruled that school prayer is unconstitutional
Abington School District v. Schemp (1963)
Supreme Court ruled no bible reading in schools.
Santa Fe School District v. Doe (2000)
Supreme Court ruled that prayer at a high school football game is coercion.
Wallace v. Jaffree (1985)
Supreme Court ruled on the moment of silence-intent of the law was to restore prayer in school.
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
Supreme Court ruled on a three-pronged test (Lemon Test):
Policy must be secular
Primary effect neither advances no inhibits religion
Must avoid excessive entanglement of religion & gov't.
Everson v. Board of Education (1947)
Supreme Court prohibits laws that benefit religion. Incorporates Establishment Clause
Reynolds v. U.S. (1879)
Supreme Court ruled that courts cannot restrict what a person believes but society has a right to legislate against relgiious activites that violates a law of the land.
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
Supreme Court ruled in favor of New York Times. In order to prove libel, a "public official" must show that the paper acted with "actual malice", with knowledge that it was false with "reckless regard" for the truth.
Near v. Minnesota (1931)
Supreme Court ruled that there can be no prior restraint, incorporates free press to all states.
New York Times v. U.S. (1971)
Supreme Court ruled that the "Pentagon Papers" was between national security v. public right to know. Ruled in favor of New York Times
Hazelwood v. Kuhmeier (1988)
Supreme Court ruled that prior restraint of student press by administration is allowed.
Schenck v. U.S. (1919)
Supreme Court ruled that "clear and present" danger speech is not protected by the First Amendment.
Gitlow v. New York ( 1925)
Supreme Court ruled that subversive speech is not protected from gov't regulations. Incorporates freedom of speech in the states & Bill of rights to the States
Bradenburg v. Ohio (1969)
Supreme Court ruled that speech that is directly related to imminent lawless action to be suppressed not just advocacy of action (KKK)
Miller v. California (1973)
Supreme Court ruled a three-pronged test for obscenity in speech:
Average person would find the speech or work appeals only to prurient interests
Work is patently offensive
The work is taken as a whole/lacks serious literary, artistic, political, and scientific value.
Bethel v. Fraser (1986)
Supreme Court ruled that First Amendment does not prevent school officials from banning lewd speech that would undermine the school's basic educational mission
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District (1969)
Supreme Court ruled that student silent protests with armbands not disruptive to the educational process
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
Supreme Court ruled that flag burning is protected under First Amendment
Printz v. U.S. (1997)
Supreme Court ruled that federal gov't cannot compel states to administer a federal regulatory program i.e background checks
Reno v. ACLU (1997)
Supreme Court struck down internet law which banned child access to pornography as violation of adult's first amendment rights. Refers to adult watch child pornography not the other way around
Weeks v. U.S (1914)
Supreme Court ruled the "Exclusionary Act", if evidence violates Fourth Amendment and it was illegally obtained, it could be immisibe in court
Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
Supreme Court ruled that campaign contributions to own campaign is free speech
Wolf v. Colorado (1949)
Supreme Court ruled that the exclusionary rule was not a necessary ingredient of the Fourth Amendment's right against warrant less and unreasonable searches and seizures
Katz v. U.S. (1967)
Supreme Court ruled that there can be no use of wiretaps w/o a warrant in phone booths this overruled.
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Supreme Court ruled that you must have probable cause or evidence can be excluded. It reinstated the exclusionary rule
Terry v. Ohio (1968)
Supreme Court ruled that stop and frisk search for weapons is allowed
Minnesota v. Dickerson (1993)
Supreme Court ruled frisks is also allowed in search for contraband
Chimel v. California (1969)
Supreme Court ruled that search incident to arrest is limited to area under the person's immediate control in search incident to arrest
U.S v. Leon (1984)
Supreme Court ruled that police can search on "good faith" that infomation given for probable cause is correct
New Jersey v. TLO (1985)
Supreme Court ruled that schools only need reasonable suspicion not probably cause for a search.
Knowles v. Iowa (1998)
Supreme Court ruled that search not allowed without arrest or probably cause
Florida v. Bostick (1991)
Supreme Court ruled that it is O.K. to search passengers luggage with consent (not airports)
Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)
Supreme Court ruled that information obtained unlawfully in an interrogation cannotbe used in court
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Supreme Court ruled a set procedural safeguards after arrest "Miranda rights"
In Re Gault (1967)
Supreme Court ruled juveniles accused of crimes got same due process rights as adults
Kelo v. New London ( 2005)
Supreme Court ruled that eminent domain seizure for public good
Powell v. Alabama (1932)
Supreme Court incorporated rights to counsel in capital cases
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Supreme Court incorporated rights to counsel in felony cases
Korematsu v. U.S. (1944)
Supreme Court ruled that during wartime, gov't may take extreme measures
Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty is "an extreme sanction suitable for the most extreme of crimes" Reinstated the death penalty
Furman v. Georgia (1972)
Supreme Court ruled application of the death penalty is cruel and unusual
Griswold v. Connecticut ( 1965)
Supreme Court ruled right to privacy and use of birth control
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Supreme Court forbid any states regulation of abortion during the first trimester.
Supreme court upheld a state law requiring teenagers to secure the consent of at least one parent before aborting
Court permits states to forbid the use of any state funding to pay for abortion
State may regulate to protect health of mother in 2nd trimester and protect health of unborn baby in 3rd trimester
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S. (1964)
Motel claimed civil rights act of 1964 was unconstitutional and the supreme court ruled on commerce clause provision to uphold civil rights act of 1964.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Boaord of Education (1971)
Supreme court ordered the busing of students to achieve racially balanced schools.
Reed v. Reed (1971)
Supreme court rules that males must not be preferred to females in appointing administrators of estates after death.
Lawrence v. Texas (2003)
Supreme court ruled private sexual acts between adults whether they are heterosexual or homosexual are protected by the constitution.
Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000)
Supreme court ruled in favor of Boys Scouts of America. Private organizations can discriminate
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
Supreme court ruled affirmative action quotas used by University of California in their admissions process were unconstitutional and Bakke had been denied because University used race as a sole criteria for admission.
Arizona v. Fulminante (1991)
ruled that coerced confession could be considered a harmless error if there was sufficient other evidence to convict defendant.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
New Hampshire tried to take over a private college by revising a charter. Charters are protected under the contract clause of the U.S. constitution.
Cruzan v. MO Department of Health (1990)
Right to refuse medical treatment
Kyllo v. U.S. (2001)
Thermal imaging of home from sidewalk is search under 4th amendment
Palko v. Connecticut (1937)
Ruled a harsher sentence as a result of a new trial won on appeal, does not violate double jeopardy. Provided test for determining which parts of the Bill of Rights should be federalized
U.S. v. Morrison (2000)
Commerce cause power does not support congressional law "Violence against women act" which federalizes the crime of battery against women, reduces scope of federalism.
New York v. Belton (1981)
Uphold statute that when a police offer makes a lawful arrest, they may search the passenger compartment
McCleskey v. Kemp (1987)
Upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty against charges that it violated the 19th amendment because minority defendantts were more likely to receive the death penalty
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1987)
Gave states more power to regulate abortion
U.S. v. Nixon (1974)
Congress claimed that there was no such thing as executive privilege as it went after tapes that President Nixon had made of all his conversations on the oval office.
INS v. Chadna (1983)
Congress would write legislation giving the president broad powers to act but reserve to itself the right to void presidential actions by vote of one or both houses, legislative veto means unconstitutional
Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
First case in which the Supreme court overturned a state law on constitutional grounds. (Judicial Review)
Loving v. Virginia (1967)
Ban on interracial marriage is a violation of the U.S. constitution promise of equal protection of the laws
Cohen v. California (1971)
Prohibits states from making the public displaying of single four-letter expletive a criminal offense without a more specific reason
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