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Holt-Bio-Chapter 7-Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Formation of Haploid cells, meiosis and genetic variation, meiosis and gamete formation, sexual and asexual reproduction, sexual life cycles in eukaryotes
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meiosis
A process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
crossing-over
The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis; can result in genetic recombination
independent assortment
The random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes
spermatogenesis
The process by which make gametes form
sperm
The male gamete
ovum
A mature egg cell
asexual reproduction
Reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
sexual reproduction
Reproduction in which gametes from two parents unite
oogenesis
The production, growth, and maturation of an egg, or ovum
clone
An organism that is produced by asexual reproduction and that is genetically identical to its parent; to make a genetic duplicate
life cycle
All of the events in the growth and development of an organism until the organism reaches sexual maturity
fertilization
The union of a male and female gamete to form a zygote
sporophyte
In plants and algae that have alternation of generations, the diploid individual or generation that produces haploid spores
gametophyte
In alternation of generations, the phase in which gametes are formed; a haploid individual that produces gametes.