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100 terms

AP European History Final Exam

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Venice, Florence, Milan and Pisa
Italian cities that led the world in all forms of art
the Papal states, Florence, Venice and Naples
Italian powers that dominated the peninsula in the Renaissance era
Florence
city in which the Renaissance began
Italian's failed to coordinate a common defense
reason for Italy's subjugation to invaders
glorification of individual genius
central components of the Italian Renaissance
studied classics to see what they revealed about human nature
what Italian humanists stressed
adopt the Renaissance spirit, especially when it comes to art
the Catholic Church's belief about Renaissance art
to glorify themselves and their families
why the rich supported Renaissance artists
it was effective
Machiavelli's belief about the sole test of good government was whether it was...
increased communication, spread ideas and lead to other advancements
what the movable type did for the world
Boccaccio
author of Decameron
that it was fundamentally good
what northern humanists believed about human nature
society itself
what Utopia placed the blame for society's flaws on
education
what Erasmus believed to be the key to reform
the nobility
the social group that most often resisted the centralizing efforts of new monarchs
that flawed social institutions were responsible for human corruption
what Thomas More's Utopia asserted that made it remarkable for its time
dealt with noble threats to the royal power in England
Star Chamber
by promoting peace and social order
how the Tudors won support from the upper middle class
Huguenots
another term for French Calvinists
before the Diet of Worms
where Charles V ordered Luther to appear
lengthy civil war
what the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre lead to
the entire community of Christian believers
what Luther believed the church consisted of
political aspirations of German princes
the group Luther's ideas about Roman exploitation of Germany appealed to
Henry IV of France
man who issued the Edict of Nantes
Scotland
where John Knox had the most influence geographically
the people became either Lutheran or Catholic depending on what their prince wanted
what happened to the people of Germany as a result of the Peace of Augsburg
compounded problems that had existed since the middle ages
what the Protestant Reformation did in Germany
indulgences, monasticism, clerical celibacy and the mass
practices Zwingli preached against
those people who were chosen for salvation
the elect, according to Calvin
regulated it
what the Genevan consistory did to the conduct of Genevans
ministry to women, religious tolerance, self-governing congregations and pacifism
beliefs of the Anabaptists
desire to confiscate the monasteries' wealth
what spurred Henry VIII to dissolve the English monasteries
60,000
number of European people executed for witchcraft in the 16th and 17th centuries
transubstantiation and the Eucharist
things that Luther and Zwingli disagreed upon
to stimulate new spiritual fervor
purpose of the Catholic Reformation
a middle course between Protestant and Catholic extremes; Act of Uniformity
policy Elizabeth I followed in religious affairs
Calvin
author of Institutes of the Christian Religion
Anabaptists
group to which the Quakers trace their origins
to prevent Charles V from increasing his power
why France supported the Protestant princes of Germany
Muslims
who controlled the spice trade in the Indian Ocean prior to the Portuguese
Portugal
European kingdom that took the lead in overseas exploration
took over much of the East Indies from Portugal
role of the Dutch East India Company in the 17th century
material profit
primary motivation for European explorers
Mongol dynasty
Chinese dynasty that opened up trade between China and the West
India
where Buddhism originated
the low countries, the kingdom of Sicily, Spain and Milan
what Philip received, land-wise, from his father, Charles V
astrolabe
instrument used to determine the altitude of the sun and other celestial bodies
Prince Henry the Navigator
gave critical support to Portugal's participation in exploration
Portugal
country that controlled the flow of African gold to Europe by 1500
Vasco de Gama
sailed around Africa and across the Arabian Sea to Calicut in India in 1497
off the coast of Asia
where Columbus believed the islands he discovered were located
the New World between Portugal and Spain
Treaty of Tordesillas divided what between whom?
being the first to circumnavigate the globe
what Magellan was known for
sugar
crop that the importation of African slaves in the 16th and 17th centuries was closely tied to
caravel
three-mast sailing vessel created by Portugal
the English nation
what Shakespeare's plays glorify
completed the decline of Spain, expanded the British empire, stopped French expansionism and gave European powers experience in international cooperation
outcomes of the Peace of Utrecht
an oligarchy
group of people that held the power in the Dutch republic
quinto
the Spanish crown claimed the right to one-fifth of all precious metals mined in South America
corregidores
held judicial and military power in Portuguese Brazil
new judicial nobility
group from which the French intendants were recruited
Catholic Reformation
movement in which the Baroque style flourished
subordination of all groups and institutions to the monarchy
the guiding force behind Cardinal Richelieu's domestic policies
Navigation Act of 1651
required that all English goods be transported on English ships
temporary religious and civil concord
what the Edict of Nantes was intended to promote
absolute and prevented civil war
what Thomas Hobbes defined as the power of a ruler
Peter Paul Rubens
the best and most important of the Baroque painters
the largest share of limited resources
what the mercantilist theory postulated that government should intervene to secure
the fear of a Catholic dynasty established by James II
spark that caused the English Glorious Revolution
established new industries and colonial ventures, increased the number of female workers, created a powerful merchant marine corps and high tarifPr
Colbert's contributions to the economy of France
France
country that was the strongest and most highly centralized state in Europe in 1685
Dutch East India Company
primary instrument of Dutch overseas imperialism
England
country that gained the most from the War of the Spanish Succession
French classicism
presents subject matter associated with the Greco-Roman past
patronage system
dominated political life at Versailles
Cardinal Richelieu
man who gave official recognition to the French Academy
Moliere
author of Tartuffe and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme
constitutionalism
limitation of government by law
the Habsburgs from unifying the territories surrounding France
Richelieu's French foreign policy primarily focused on the prevention of...
military
type of dictatorship that Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate was best described as
troops pillaging villages, high taxes, cold, wet summers and slump in exports
what starvation and economic crisis in France in 1688-1694 were caused by
agricultural commodities directly to foreign capitalists
the importance and liberty of Eastern towns were undermined by nobles selling...
replaced with nobles loyal to the Habsburgs
what happened to the Bohemian nobility as a result of the 1618 revolt of the Bohemian nobility
Vienna
failed siege of this city that caused some to hate the Ottoman Empire's European expansion
Hungary and Transylvania
Habsburgs conquered most of these two countries in the aftermath of the siege of Vienna in 1683
Janissary corps
Christian slaves forced into the Ottoman army
millets
religious communities the Ottoman Empire divided its subjects into
curtailed the power of the nobility, created a standing army, introduced permanent taxation without consent and reduced the power of towPr
great accomplishments of Frederick William the Great Elector
they were thrown out of a window
what happened to the agents of the Catholic king in Prague in the "defenestration of Prague"
slaves
what the sultan of the Ottoman Empire filled the top ranks of his bureaucracy with
molding the most militaristic country of modern time
Frederick William I's most enduring legacy
junkers
Prussia's landowning class
Bohemian phase
first phase of the Thirty Years' War
Peace of Westphalia
ended the Thirty Years' War
relaxed the obligations of the nobility
Romanov tsars did this to the nobility after the Time of Troubles
incessant warfare
reign of Peter the Great was characterized by
serfdom
consolidation of what form of labor in eastern Europe was accompanied by the rise of estate agriculture
he conscripted tens of thousands of Russian peasants to work each summer
how Peter the Great approached the problem of finding labor to build St. Petersburg
Peter compelled them to reside there
how Peter found people to live in St. Petersburg
the dynastic and romantic concerns of Henry VIII
the Reformation in England was primarily the result of