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Venice, Florence, Milan and Pisa

Italian cities that led the world in all forms of art

the Papal states, Florence, Venice and Naples

Italian powers that dominated the peninsula in the Renaissance era


city in which the Renaissance began

Italian's failed to coordinate a common defense

reason for Italy's subjugation to invaders

glorification of individual genius

central components of the Italian Renaissance

studied classics to see what they revealed about human nature

what Italian humanists stressed

adopt the Renaissance spirit, especially when it comes to art

the Catholic Church's belief about Renaissance art

to glorify themselves and their families

why the rich supported Renaissance artists

it was effective

Machiavelli's belief about the sole test of good government was whether it was...

increased communication, spread ideas and lead to other advancements

what the movable type did for the world


author of Decameron

that it was fundamentally good

what northern humanists believed about human nature

society itself

what Utopia placed the blame for society's flaws on


what Erasmus believed to be the key to reform

the nobility

the social group that most often resisted the centralizing efforts of new monarchs

that flawed social institutions were responsible for human corruption

what Thomas More's Utopia asserted that made it remarkable for its time

dealt with noble threats to the royal power in England

Star Chamber

by promoting peace and social order

how the Tudors won support from the upper middle class


another term for French Calvinists

before the Diet of Worms

where Charles V ordered Luther to appear

lengthy civil war

what the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre lead to

the entire community of Christian believers

what Luther believed the church consisted of

political aspirations of German princes

the group Luther's ideas about Roman exploitation of Germany appealed to

Henry IV of France

man who issued the Edict of Nantes


where John Knox had the most influence geographically

the people became either Lutheran or Catholic depending on what their prince wanted

what happened to the people of Germany as a result of the Peace of Augsburg

compounded problems that had existed since the middle ages

what the Protestant Reformation did in Germany

indulgences, monasticism, clerical celibacy and the mass

practices Zwingli preached against

those people who were chosen for salvation

the elect, according to Calvin

regulated it

what the Genevan consistory did to the conduct of Genevans

ministry to women, religious tolerance, self-governing congregations and pacifism

beliefs of the Anabaptists

desire to confiscate the monasteries' wealth

what spurred Henry VIII to dissolve the English monasteries


number of European people executed for witchcraft in the 16th and 17th centuries

transubstantiation and the Eucharist

things that Luther and Zwingli disagreed upon

to stimulate new spiritual fervor

purpose of the Catholic Reformation

a middle course between Protestant and Catholic extremes; Act of Uniformity

policy Elizabeth I followed in religious affairs


author of Institutes of the Christian Religion


group to which the Quakers trace their origins

to prevent Charles V from increasing his power

why France supported the Protestant princes of Germany


who controlled the spice trade in the Indian Ocean prior to the Portuguese


European kingdom that took the lead in overseas exploration

took over much of the East Indies from Portugal

role of the Dutch East India Company in the 17th century

material profit

primary motivation for European explorers

Mongol dynasty

Chinese dynasty that opened up trade between China and the West


where Buddhism originated

the low countries, the kingdom of Sicily, Spain and Milan

what Philip received, land-wise, from his father, Charles V


instrument used to determine the altitude of the sun and other celestial bodies

Prince Henry the Navigator

gave critical support to Portugal's participation in exploration


country that controlled the flow of African gold to Europe by 1500

Vasco de Gama

sailed around Africa and across the Arabian Sea to Calicut in India in 1497

off the coast of Asia

where Columbus believed the islands he discovered were located

the New World between Portugal and Spain

Treaty of Tordesillas divided what between whom?

being the first to circumnavigate the globe

what Magellan was known for


crop that the importation of African slaves in the 16th and 17th centuries was closely tied to


three-mast sailing vessel created by Portugal

the English nation

what Shakespeare's plays glorify

completed the decline of Spain, expanded the British empire, stopped French expansionism and gave European powers experience in international cooperation

outcomes of the Peace of Utrecht

an oligarchy

group of people that held the power in the Dutch republic


the Spanish crown claimed the right to one-fifth of all precious metals mined in South America


held judicial and military power in Portuguese Brazil

new judicial nobility

group from which the French intendants were recruited

Catholic Reformation

movement in which the Baroque style flourished

subordination of all groups and institutions to the monarchy

the guiding force behind Cardinal Richelieu's domestic policies

Navigation Act of 1651

required that all English goods be transported on English ships

temporary religious and civil concord

what the Edict of Nantes was intended to promote

absolute and prevented civil war

what Thomas Hobbes defined as the power of a ruler

Peter Paul Rubens

the best and most important of the Baroque painters

the largest share of limited resources

what the mercantilist theory postulated that government should intervene to secure

the fear of a Catholic dynasty established by James II

spark that caused the English Glorious Revolution

established new industries and colonial ventures, increased the number of female workers, created a powerful merchant marine corps and high tarifPr

Colbert's contributions to the economy of France


country that was the strongest and most highly centralized state in Europe in 1685

Dutch East India Company

primary instrument of Dutch overseas imperialism


country that gained the most from the War of the Spanish Succession

French classicism

presents subject matter associated with the Greco-Roman past

patronage system

dominated political life at Versailles

Cardinal Richelieu

man who gave official recognition to the French Academy


author of Tartuffe and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme


limitation of government by law

the Habsburgs from unifying the territories surrounding France

Richelieu's French foreign policy primarily focused on the prevention of...


type of dictatorship that Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate was best described as

troops pillaging villages, high taxes, cold, wet summers and slump in exports

what starvation and economic crisis in France in 1688-1694 were caused by

agricultural commodities directly to foreign capitalists

the importance and liberty of Eastern towns were undermined by nobles selling...

replaced with nobles loyal to the Habsburgs

what happened to the Bohemian nobility as a result of the 1618 revolt of the Bohemian nobility


failed siege of this city that caused some to hate the Ottoman Empire's European expansion

Hungary and Transylvania

Habsburgs conquered most of these two countries in the aftermath of the siege of Vienna in 1683

Janissary corps

Christian slaves forced into the Ottoman army


religious communities the Ottoman Empire divided its subjects into

curtailed the power of the nobility, created a standing army, introduced permanent taxation without consent and reduced the power of towPr

great accomplishments of Frederick William the Great Elector

they were thrown out of a window

what happened to the agents of the Catholic king in Prague in the "defenestration of Prague"


what the sultan of the Ottoman Empire filled the top ranks of his bureaucracy with

molding the most militaristic country of modern time

Frederick William I's most enduring legacy


Prussia's landowning class

Bohemian phase

first phase of the Thirty Years' War

Peace of Westphalia

ended the Thirty Years' War

relaxed the obligations of the nobility

Romanov tsars did this to the nobility after the Time of Troubles

incessant warfare

reign of Peter the Great was characterized by


consolidation of what form of labor in eastern Europe was accompanied by the rise of estate agriculture

he conscripted tens of thousands of Russian peasants to work each summer

how Peter the Great approached the problem of finding labor to build St. Petersburg

Peter compelled them to reside there

how Peter found people to live in St. Petersburg

the dynastic and romantic concerns of Henry VIII

the Reformation in England was primarily the result of

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