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the Papal states, Florence, Venice and Naples
Italian powers that dominated the peninsula in the Renaissance era
adopt the Renaissance spirit, especially when it comes to art
the Catholic Church's belief about Renaissance art
increased communication, spread ideas and lead to other advancements
what the movable type did for the world
that flawed social institutions were responsible for human corruption
what Thomas More's Utopia asserted that made it remarkable for its time
political aspirations of German princes
the group Luther's ideas about Roman exploitation of Germany appealed to
the people became either Lutheran or Catholic depending on what their prince wanted
what happened to the people of Germany as a result of the Peace of Augsburg
compounded problems that had existed since the middle ages
what the Protestant Reformation did in Germany
ministry to women, religious tolerance, self-governing congregations and pacifism
beliefs of the Anabaptists
desire to confiscate the monasteries' wealth
what spurred Henry VIII to dissolve the English monasteries
a middle course between Protestant and Catholic extremes; Act of Uniformity
policy Elizabeth I followed in religious affairs
to prevent Charles V from increasing his power
why France supported the Protestant princes of Germany
took over much of the East Indies from Portugal
role of the Dutch East India Company in the 17th century
the low countries, the kingdom of Sicily, Spain and Milan
what Philip received, land-wise, from his father, Charles V
crop that the importation of African slaves in the 16th and 17th centuries was closely tied to
completed the decline of Spain, expanded the British empire, stopped French expansionism and gave European powers experience in international cooperation
outcomes of the Peace of Utrecht
the Spanish crown claimed the right to one-fifth of all precious metals mined in South America
subordination of all groups and institutions to the monarchy
the guiding force behind Cardinal Richelieu's domestic policies
the largest share of limited resources
what the mercantilist theory postulated that government should intervene to secure
the fear of a Catholic dynasty established by James II
spark that caused the English Glorious Revolution
established new industries and colonial ventures, increased the number of female workers, created a powerful merchant marine corps and high tarifPr
Colbert's contributions to the economy of France
the Habsburgs from unifying the territories surrounding France
Richelieu's French foreign policy primarily focused on the prevention of...
troops pillaging villages, high taxes, cold, wet summers and slump in exports
what starvation and economic crisis in France in 1688-1694 were caused by
agricultural commodities directly to foreign capitalists
the importance and liberty of Eastern towns were undermined by nobles selling...
replaced with nobles loyal to the Habsburgs
what happened to the Bohemian nobility as a result of the 1618 revolt of the Bohemian nobility
Hungary and Transylvania
Habsburgs conquered most of these two countries in the aftermath of the siege of Vienna in 1683
curtailed the power of the nobility, created a standing army, introduced permanent taxation without consent and reduced the power of towPr
great accomplishments of Frederick William the Great Elector
they were thrown out of a window
what happened to the agents of the Catholic king in Prague in the "defenestration of Prague"
relaxed the obligations of the nobility
Romanov tsars did this to the nobility after the Time of Troubles
consolidation of what form of labor in eastern Europe was accompanied by the rise of estate agriculture
he conscripted tens of thousands of Russian peasants to work each summer
how Peter the Great approached the problem of finding labor to build St. Petersburg
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