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19 terms

Vocabulary: Genetic Engineering & The Human Genome

Using Holt vocabulary
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Autosome
chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Clone
member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell
DNA Fingerprinting
analysis of sections of DNA that have little or no known function, but vary widely from one individual to another in order to identify individuals
Gel Electrophoresis
procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
Genetic Engineering
process of making changes in the DNA codes of living organisms
Genetic Marker
gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't
Hybridization
breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms
Inbreeding
continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms
Karyotype
photograph of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
Nondisjunction
error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate
Pedigree
chart that shows the relationships within family
Plasmid
small circular piece of DNA
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene
Recombinant DNA
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
Restriction Enzyme
enzyme that cuts DNA of a specific sequence of nucleotides
Selective Breeding
method of breeding that allows only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation
Sex Chromosome
one of two chromosomes that determine an individual's sex
Sex-linked Gene
gene located on the X or Y chromosome
Transgenic
term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms