Disturbed land, mine waste dumping, oil spills, and heat from the exploration and extraction in mining. Solid wastes, radioactive material, air, water, and soil pollution from processing (transportation, purification, manufacturing). Thermal water pollution, pollution of air, water, and soil, solid and radioactive wastes from use (transportation or transmission to individual user, eventual use, and discarding). Surface mining scars and disrupts land surface and destroys or degrades biodiversity when ricers are polluted with mining wastes and forests are cleared. Mining produces large amounts of wastes, which cause air, and water pollution and huge amounts of water used to process ore often contain pollutants such as sulfuric acid and arsenic and this runoff contaminates freshwater supplies and fish used for food. Also, toxic chemicals are released into the atmosphere. AKA tiny tech; uses science and engineering to manipulate and create materials out of atoms and molecules at the ultra-small scale of less than 100 nanometers. It can be used in products for the home, skincare products, food containers, supercomputers, health improvements, remove industrial pollutants in contaminated air, water, and soil, purify water, turn garbage into breakfast, and so much more. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries have about 60% of the world's proven crude oil reserves and thus are likely to control most of the world's oil supplies for many decades. Members are Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. The OPEC produced about 39% of the world's oil in 2009. About 41% is unavoidably lost because of the degradation of energy quality imposed by the second law of thermodynamics. The other 43% is wasted unnecessarily, mostly due to the inefficiency of incandescent light bulbs, furnaces, industrial motors, most motor vehicles, coal and nuclear power plants, and numerous other energy-consuming devices. Also, many people live in leaky, poorly insulated, and badly designed buildings that require excessive heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. Also, the incandescent light bulb (wastes 90-95%), the internal combustion engine (wastes 80%), nuclear power plant (wastes 92%), coal-fired power plant (wastes 75-80%).