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Vitamins

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Antioxidant Vitamins
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
Selenium
Beta-Carotene
Antioxidants
compounds in the diet made in cells that work to prevent damage to cells and tissues caused by oxidation
Vitamin
an essential non-caloric organic nutrient needed in small amounts in the diet
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
ADEK
-stored in the liver
-found in fats and oils in foods
Can reach toxic levels if too much is consumed form supplements
-not excreted through urine
Vitamin A
active form Retinol
-most important of all vitamins
-widespread throughout most developing countries
-deficiency can lead to blindness in children
-stored in the liver
-absorption is directly related to the amount of fat in diet
-colorless
-weak antioxidant
Roles of Vitamin A
-gene expression
-vision
-maintenance of body linings
-immune deficiencies
-growth of bones and of the body
-normal development of the body
-reproduction
RDA's of Vitamin A
900 mcg for men
700 for women
Toxicity 3000 REAs
Precusor's to Vitamin A
Either Retinyl Esters(animals) or Beta-Carotene(plants). Retinyl Esters turn into Reitnol and Beta-Carotene turns into Retinal. These two then become interchangable, and then can turn into Retininoic Acid
Vitamin A Deficency
Stunt of Growth
Night Blindness
Malformation of tooth enamel and gums
xerophthalmia causes children to go blind
Vitamin A Toxicity
excessive irritability
Swelling over the long bones
Dry and Itching Skin
Beta-Carotene
-comes from yellow to orange colored plant foods and green leafy vegetables.
-Most abundant precursor of vitamin A
-12 mg=1 mg of retinol
-absorbed through the lymph
Beta-Carotene Toxicity
Carotenosis-orange color of the skin
Vitamin C
Antioxidant
Water-Soluble
Most Easily destroyed by light, heat or air
Collagen formation
helps prevent anemia
enhances calcium and iron absorption
needed to make proteins for wound healing
Vitamin C Deficiency
-loss of appetite -anemia
-growth cessation -Red Spots on Skin
-tenderness to touch - weakness
-loose teeth -bleeding gums
-swollen ankles and wrists -scury
Vitamin C RDA's
75mg for women
90mg for men
2000mg TUL
Vitamin E
-tocopherols
-fat soluble
-antioxidant
-comes from salad oils, and other oils and whole grains, liver, beans, fruits, and vegetables
-destroyed by light and oxidation
Functions of Vitamin E
lowers LDL's
Development and maintenance of nerves and muscles
protects cells in the immune system
protects vitamin a from oxidation
Vitamin E RDA's
15 mg for all adults
TUL 1000 mg
Vitamin E Deficency
red blood cell breakage and nerve damage
Vitamin E Toxicity
bad for anti-clotting medication
Selenium
-assists a group of enzymes in protecting vulnerable chemicals from oxidation
-activates thyroxin
-helps prevent prostate cancer
-supports immune system
DRI of Selenium
55 ug
TUL 400 ug
Selenium Deficency
-heart disease, Keshan Disease
Thyroxin
hormone produced in thyroid gland, regulates metabolism
Needs for healthy bones and teeth
calcium
phosphorus
vitamin d
vitamin k
fluoride
Minerals
loss through urine
insufficiency (primary)
poor utilization (secondary)
causes stunted growth
Calcium Absorption
occurs in duodenum
the higher the need and the lower content in diet the greater efficiency
influenced by vitamin d
Keeps other nutrients from binging with Iron
Functions of Calcium
combines with phosphorous to form "cortical bone"
Vitamin D
AL 5 mcg
50% made by sunlight
Vitamin D deficiency
Adult Rickets, bowed legs beading of the ribs
Hypervitaminosis D
most toxic vitamin
Precursot to Vitamin D
Cholecalciferol
Phosphorus
second most abundant mineral in body
needed to make ATP
makes part of cell membrane
to much is bad bc negative charge attracts to CA making insoluble
Phosphorus RDA's
700 mg
TUL 4,000 mg
Functions of Phosphorus
combines with calcium to give teeth and bones rigidity
used in body energy reactions
needed for brain and nerve functioning
muscle contractions
cell's genetic material
vitamers/provitamins
pre vitamins
Trabecular Bone
supports cortical bone structure
easily broken down to supply Ca, P, and FL
lose of this contributes of spine and hips
Osteoclasts
bone cells that breakdown the bone surface and release the mineral components into the blood
Osteoblasts
bone cells that rebuild new bone to replace broken down bones
Vitamin K RDA's
AL 120 mcg men
90 mcg for women
Vitamin K
found in leafy vegetables
50% made by bacteria in GI tract
animal milk has more than breast milk
Vitamin K Toxicity
Red blood cell lysis
Potential Brain Damage
Yellowing of the skin (liver malfunction)
Kernicerus
B Vitamins
act as part of coenzymes
metabolism of carbs, lipids, and amino acids
Vitamin B6
helps body make protein
helps cells divide
prevents anemia
Thiamin Deficiency alcohol
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome-alcohol abuse
-irritability
-apathy
-jerky eye
-loss of memory
Thiamin RDA's
1.2 mg men
1.1 mg women
higher if prego or lactating
Vitamin B2
Riboflavin
-found in milk, green vegetables, whole grain, enriched products, fortified cereals
Riboflavin Deficiency
Aribofalinosis,
-inflammation of eyes, lips, mouth, and tongue
-greasy skin
-cracking skin at corners of mouth
-confusion
Vitamin B1
Thiamin
-found in pork products, leafy greens, whole grain cereals, legumes
Thiamin Deficency
Beriberi
-loss of sensation in hands
-wet have calories in diet, has edema
-dry low calories
Vitamin B3
Niacin
-tryptophan can be converted to this
-found in Beef, Chicken, Fish, Peanuts, Legums, Whole and Enriched grains
Role of Niacin
involved in enzyme reacions
Niacin Deficiency
Pellagra
-Diarrhea
-Dermatitis
-Dementia
-Death
Niacin Toxicity
injure the liver
-vision loss
-peptic ulcers
RDA's Niacin
UL 35 mg
16 mg men
14 mg women
Folate
Folic Acid
found in uncooked vegetables, eggs, orange juice, legumes
milk enhances absorption
Folate RDA's
400 mcg
UL 1,000 mcg
600 mcg is prego
Folate Deficiency
anemia
diminished immunity
-abnormal digestive function
-cardiovascular event
-colon cancer
-cervical cancer
-prevents Neural Tube Defects
Roles of Folate
DNA synthesis
metabolism of amino acids
Folate Toxicity
mask b12 deficency
antagonistic of anitcancer drugs
Vitamin B12
Cyanocobalamin
-folate and fatty acid metabolism
-nerve function
-red blood cells mature
DRI of Vitamin B12
2.4 ug
Deficency of B12
damage to never sheaths
paralysis
malfunctioning of nerves and muscles