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William Howard Taft

27th president of the U.S. 1909-1913; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.

Theodore Roosevelt

26th President of the United States, 26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War

Gentlemen's Agreement

Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them

19th Amendment

(1920) gave women the right to vote

Alfred Thayer Mahan

Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy

George Dewey

naval hero of the Spanish-American War; his fleet defeated the Spanish at Manila Bay and gave the United States a tenuous claim to the Philippine Islands.

James G. Blaine

served as secretary of state in two administrations in the 1880's, led early efforts to expand american influence in latin america.

Dupuy de Lome

Spanish ambassador who said that Pres. McKinley was a weak leader in a letter and got fired.

Emilio Aguinaldo

(WMc) Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743), USA developed Jones Act and Tydings McDuffie Act

Richard Olney

the secretary of state under Cleveland. attacked Britain for trying to get some of Venezuela's land. claimed it went against the Monroe Doctrine


Spanish policy of moving Cubans to detention camps so that they could not aid rebels


fanatical patriotism


A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.

Pan American Conference

this was an international organization that dealt with trade; organized by james blaine; created to encourage cooperation and trust with the manufacturers

Rough Riders

volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War

Foraker Act 1900

gave the US direct control over and power to set up a government in Puerto Rico

John Hay

Was the Secretary of State in 1899; dispatched the Open Door Notes to keep the countries that had spheres of influence in China from taking over China and closing the doors on trade between China and the U.S.

Guerrilla warfare

military technique relying on swift raids by small bands of soldiers

spheres of influence

European countries had exclusive trading rights to areas in China

Philippine insurrection

A rebellion before the Spanish American War when there were tensions between the Filippinos and the US

Benevolent assimilation 1898

McKinley and the U.S. were trying to assimilate the Philippines by expensively improving roads, sanitation, and public health. Caused much Filippino resistance

Open Door notes 1899

mesage sent by secretary of state John Hay to European countries to protect U.S. trading rights in China

Boxer Rebellion 1900

an uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty 1881

treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to canal across Isthmus of Panama

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty 1901

An agreement in which the U.S would receive exclusive rights to construct and control a canal in Central America. It nullified the 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, thus allowing the Panama Canal to be built.

Hay-Banau-Varilla Treaty 1903

treaty granted the United States control over a canal zone ten miles across the Isthmus of Panama. In return, the US guaranteed the independence of Panama and agreed to pay Colombia a onetime fee of $10 million and an annual rental of $250000

Roosevelt Corollary 1904

Roosevelt's extension of the monroe doctrine, in which he declared that the united states had the right to exercise "police power" throughout the South and Central America

Portsmouth Conference 1905

The meeting between Japan, Russia, and the U.S. that ended the Russo-Japanese War. Agreements left both sidees unhappy

Great White Fleet 1907-1909

16 American battleships, painted white, sent around the world by Roosevelt to display American naval power

Gentlemen's Agreement 1907

Japan agreed to restrict emmigration of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them

Woodrow Wilson

28th (1913-1921) American President during WWI - had 14 point plan - key figure in League of Nations- Established the federal reserve

Kaiser Wilhelm III

King of Prussia and Emperor of Germany whose political policies led his country into World War I. He was forced from power when Germany lost the war

Eugene V. Debs

Leader of the American Railroad Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months

The Sussex 1916

An unarmed French steamer attack by German submarines. Wilson demanded Germany to abandon its "unlawful" tactics.

The Lusitania

medical boat used by US to secretly ship artillery to britain; sank by german torpeado, killing 128 Americans and starts tension btwn U.S. and central powers. Caused the US to enter WWI

New Nationalism

Roosevelt's domestic platform during the 1912 election accepting the power of trusts and proposing a more powerful government to regulate them

George Creel

Headed the Committee on Public Information, for promoting the war effort in WWI

Herbert Hoover

31st president of the U.S from 1923-1933 leader of the US in the beginning of the great depression. He didn't want the gov involved in the peoples lives and thought that the people should express their individual rights.

Warren G. Harding

29th president (1921-1923) after World War I who promised to return the US to normalism

Marshal Foch

commanded all the allied forces during the war

Bernard Baruch

He headed the War Industries Board which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism.

Food Administration

Created by Wilson during WWI - Led by Herbert Hoover - set up ration system to save food for soldiers


belief that people in a territory should have the ability to choose their own government

Collective security

agreement by a group of nations to defend the other in case of an attack on any member

Espionage and Sedition Acts

Two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918, that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against US participation in World War I


Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI

Zimmerman note 1917

A note intercepted by the US, originally sent from Germany to Mexico saying that if Mexico can keep the US out of the Great War then Germany would help Mexico regain its territories taken from the US like New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.

Industrial Workers of the World

Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.

Fourteen Points 1918

Wilson's plan for world peace after WWI. called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations

Treaty of Versailles 1919

Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.


a nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers during WWI

League of Nations

International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.

War Industries Board

Agency established in 1917 during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.

Big Four

most important leaders at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.


These were Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass. Led by isolationists

Committee on Public Information

Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda and say it was a battle for freedom and democracy

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