Terms in this set (96)
In the post modern era, who counts as family?
Family is who you decide it is
Where are majority of women with children working?
Outside of the home
What is a popular timeline of cohabitation?
sliding and deciding
Divorce rates have -- in the post modern era?
Age at first marriage has....
Why was there a divorce spike in 1981-82
no fault divorce laws
Divorce is highly likely in what age group?
Younger than 25
What education level is most likely to divorce?
What are the outcomes of kids of divorced parents of a high conflict?
they do better after the divorce
What are the outcomes of kids of divorced parents without high conflict?
They drop in emotional well-being and academic performance
What determines if a divorce is positve or negative?
Non-married childbirth has a greater acceptance of what?
Diverse family formations
Most families now have what kind of income situation?
Why are people delaying marriage now?
Careers and education, cornerstone vs capstone, and the replacement rate is decreasing
What is emerging adulthood?
the steps of "adulting" : 28-30ish is now "adult"
What age group population is growing?
Elderly. Over 41 million people are over the age of 65
There is a great financial strain on what generation?
The sandwich generation. After baby boomers but before millenials
Children raised by same sex parents are no more likely to....
identify as LGBTQ
There are no significant differences between straight and same sex families in preferences for what?
toys, activities, interests, and occupation goals
Maternity leave is associated with what?
Lower infant mortality
When is maternity leave less important?
after the 1st year
Quality of care is more important than what?
source of the care
Children raised by single parents are more likely to experience what?
delinquency, lower academic achievement, depression, substance abuse, and poorer physical health
Lack of financial well being causes what?
The consequences kids of single parents face
Single parents typically have what kind of income?
What are key aspects of family labor?
Care work and housework
Despite some shifts in the amount of care work and housework done by men, women...
still do more
The gap between the amount of care work and housework between men and women has narrowed because of what?
1. men have increased time spent on child care
2. Women have decreased the amount of time spent on housework
What is the Family and Medical Leave Act?
entitles eligible employees of covered employers to take unpaid, job-protected leave for specified family and medical reasons with continuation of group health insurance coverage under the same terms and conditions as if the employee had not taken leave
How prevalent is intimate partner violence with the FMLA?
FMLA leave may be available to address certain health-related issues resulting from domestic violence. An eligible employee may take FMLA leave because of his or her own serious health condition or to care for a qualifying family member with a serious health condition that resulted from domestic violence. For example, an eligible employee may be able to take FMLA leave if he or she is hospitalized overnight or is receiving certain treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder that resulted from domestic violence.
What is deviance?
behaviors that departs from social norms but is not necessarily criminal
o May be odd, bad, or good behavior
o Heroic act would be good deviant behavior
A crime is an act that is
o 1. Deemed socially harmful or dangerous
o 2. Specifically defined, prohibited, and punished under criminal law
o Duress-criminal act you are not responsible for
Not all crime is deviance and not all deviance is crime
o Deviant but not criminal: yelling in a library, sleeping in class
o Criminal but not deviant: speeding, traffic laws
o Both deviant and criminal: theft
Why do we care about deviance vs crime?
What is the Uniform Crime Report
o Collected by FBI
o All crimes reported to the police
o Reported and investigated
o Arrests included as well
o Reporting is voluntary
o FBI complies it and has data on all types of crime
o Best available data and gives good information on things that are extremely likely to be reported, like homicide and vehicle theft
What is the National Crime Victimization Survery
o Conducted by US Census Bureau
o Household survey
o Far better in terms of information on unreported crime
o Sexual assault is the least likely to be reported
What is a self report crime survey?
o Many focuses on youth, also used to evaluated/describe perpetration and victimization
• Both violent crime and property crime have dropped since when?
Gender gap in crime is decreasing why?
men are committing less crime
the majority of crime is committed by what age range?
Where are most crimes committed?
What region has the least amount of crime?
what are the 4 popular causes of crime?
poverty, prison, guns, and drugs
How does poverty lead to crime?
relative deprivation is linked to crime increase. We don't have strategies to fight economic inequality. Not many ways out of inequality
How does prison lead to crime?
70% of inmates in prison right now are repeat offenders. Highly stigmatized. Makes it hard to re-enter society after prison. One can learn pro-criminal behavior.
How do guns lead to crime?
You cannot get money/grants to study guns in the US. High gun availability is linked to increase in homicide. Guns do not result in more violence.
How do drugs lead to crime?
USA has huge drug abuse problem. Have not been effective in reducing drug usage and usage has connection to crime.
what makes mass incarceration appealing?
1) Approaches to crime in the U.S are based on the idea of deterrence
2) Americans tend to overestimate crime
· Ex: According to a 2013 Gallup poll, 64% of Americans thoughts crime had increased in the last year
3) We want to punish wrong-doing
4) So... it is often politically savvy to support tough on crime policies, including a preference for incarceration and harsher sentencing practices
what is mass incarceration?
refers to the current American experiment in incarceration, which is defined by comparatively and historically extreme rates of imprisonment and by the concentration of imprisonment among young, African American men living in neighborhoods of concentrated disadvantage
Has incarceration reduced crime in the US?
not really.Reduced crime by 10-25% at very most since 1980s
What are most arrests made on these days?
What is recidivism?
the tendency of a convicted criminal to reoffend
why does recidivism occur?
· Trauma- prison is traumatic and has mental health effects on ppl
o Prisons control everything (totalizing institution)
o Ppl have difficulty exiting prison system b/c of so much freedom
60-70% of inmates remain what after being released?
what is the racial inequality in the criminal justice system?
African Americans, Hispanics and Native Americans are more likely to be arrested than whites and Asian Americans are the least likely to be arrested
what are the economic disparities within the criminal justice system?
Lower class more likely to have charges filed against them and charges filed tend to be more severe
what does incarceration do for families and children?
causes economic hardship
Children of what kinds of parents have worse school-related outcomes compared to peers?
What are the social determinants of health?
-conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age
-Income, education, economic status, housing/neighborhood location, employment (position and stress), social class, control, racial discrimination
What is the difference between individual health and population health?
Individual health is likely better than population health
What are the consequences of inequality?
Excess death, from preventable diseases, of the poor. Stresses that arise due to inequality lead to other health issues, like diabetes. Racism leads to a variety of health issues.
• Why is health more than health care, individual behaviors, and genes?
Education and stress levels also affect your health. Your sociological conditions play a role in your health overall.
• What social and economic conditions described in the film support and encourage healthy choices?
The better economic status you have, the more access you have to healthier foods and lifestyles (vacations). You have more options to have better health choices the more money you have.
Low rate Americans have a higher rate of what?
College grads live how many more years longer than high school grads?
Cost of college has increased how much over the last few years?
What is the median income line that most Americans live at?
In the film Unnatural Causes, how were the districts categorized?
o District 5 poor, 16 middle class, 21 upper class
More education and income, what do you have less of?
What does a low stress level do to your immune system?
it functions better
1/5 of men work in what kind of job?
a high demand and low control job
What is the White Hall study?
Studied the employment gradient. Lower risk of chronic health diseases at the top of the employment gradient. Prestige and Control.
Health is on a scale similar to what?
How does racism effect health?
weathering in health. Chronic stress associated with racism leads to a weathering on the body. Linked to inflammation, arthritis, heart disease, etc. Stress becomes embodied and is linked to negative health outcomes.
What is the c-section rate in the US?
o C-section rate is too high in USA. White women class status is protective. Infant mortality not as popular with white women.
What is the Latino Paradox?
The tendency for Hispanic people (the first generation) to have lower than average rates of complicated pregnancies and some chronic illnesses despite the fact that many of them live in relatively poor social or economic conditions
• Why do we typically think of health only in terms of health care and personal behaviors? Where are these messages coming from? Who benefits from them?
This information is typically social class sensitive. The way knowledge is produced often benefits those in positions of power. These are things that also aren't likely to change
• Why is the ability to influence your destiny an important factor for health?
Lack of control leads to lack of knowledge about social determinants of health. A lot of these determinants are things you can't change. Why tell someone something if it won't work? But they can try to change it. One of the consequences of not wide spreading social determinants of health is that polices around health won't focus on solutions.
Why can the price of medicines in the US be so high?
Because medicine is essential and people will pay the cost for it
How are schools funded?
How does income inequality contribute to education gaps?
schools located in affluent suburban communities are populated by economically privileged students who come from families who prioritize education and place high expectations on both their own children and the schools they attend. A school environment characterized in this way is one in which rapid learning can take place. By contrast, schools in poor neighborhoods and communities have relatively few parents with college or advanced degrees, and the students attending these schools have to be very self-motivated and get special attention from teachers if they are to learn at the same level and pace as students in more advantaged schools
What are charter schools?
schools operated with public funds by private community groups under a charter from public school districts or other granting agency
What are characteristics of charter schools?
They are allowed to make many of their own decisions regarding factors such as the length of the school day and the structure of the curriculum, and they often have considerably more flexibility in hiring and firing teachers.These schools are publicly funded and subject to the same testing rules and basic curriculum as regular public schools but are otherwise free of many of the rules and requirements that regulate public schools
What is the preferred method of determining divorce rates?
to develop a statistical estimate about the likelihood of a marriage today ending in divorce based on trends in divorce rates in the past combined with new information about people getting married today.
Part of the reason for a lower rate of divorce among younger people appears to be what?
that as the marriage rate declines, and couples are waiting longer to marry, they are choosing more carefully before jumping into marriage, and as a result their marriages have been more stable
What percentage of marriages end in divorce?
Less affluent countries have lower what?
Are divorces typically initiated by one person or both people?
In a heterosexual relationship that ends in divorce, who is more likely to experience a loss in income?
What race is most likely to have a child from an unmarried relationship?
African American women
What is the "decline in marriageable men" hypothesis?
-marriageable men: someone who is employed, not in prison, and has some prospects to maintain a stable income. There is evidence that the shortage hypothesis might be correct. Poor men with limited educations, particularly young men of color, have seen a mammoth increase in the likelihood of doing prison time, and their opportunities for stable employment in decent-paying jobs have also steadily declined in recent years
Why is intimate parter violence often not reported?
fear of reprisal, worry that the police wouldn't or couldn't help, or perhaps a concern that the violent partner might be punished too severely.
What two factors led to the rise in incarceration?
war on drugs and politics
What is the Harlem Children's Zone
attempt to provide not only high-quality schools for children from low-income families, but to involve families and communities in addressing some of the other factors that make it difficult for children to learn. These include health clinics, social services, all-day pre-kindergarten programs, and other kinds of support programs not normally part of a typical school system
How does tracking effect students?
-the assignment of children to different kinds of curriculum based on their perceived ability.
-Tracking is controversial in large part because once children are placed in different tracks, they are likely to reach different outcomes because they are exposed to levels of learning. Tracking produces what social scientists call a self-fulfilling prophesy: once assigned to a lower track, a child will learn less and do less well on tests than her peers who have been placed in a higher track, regardless of effort or ability. Early assignments in elementary school are often based on reading levels, and the curriculum is said to be the same for all students.
What are some of the outcomes associated with preparatory schools and hyper segregated schools?
prep schools:Classes at elite boarding schools are often taught as seminars with no more than 15 students. Teachers know their students well and can provide extra help if needed. Students write a great deal and are carefully taught how to write well—how to make an argument and support it with evidence. Learning to think critically about evidence and ideas is closely cultivated in these schools. Virtually everyone takes college-level (Advanced Placement) courses and participates in extracurricular activities that are meaningful for the college resume
Hyper segregated: over 90% are in poverty