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6 - The Jacksonian Era (Essentials)
Terms in this set (68)
Entrepreneur who built the first commercially successful steamboat. His ship, the Clermont, sailed between New York City and Albany along the Hudson River.
Inventor of a horse-drawn reaper. His company became a major producer of farm equipment.
Inventor of a riding plow that allowed farmers to turn thick prairie soil into profitable farmland.
Inventor of the telegraph and the code that bears his name.
Inventor of vulcanization, a chemical process that for treating rubber so that it could be used in both hot and cold conditions.
Inventor who pioneered the use of interchangeable parts and invented the cotton gin.
Inventor of a sewing machine in 1846.
Frances Cabot Lowell
Entrepreneur of the early Industrial Revolution. He opened the Boston Manufacturing Company and integrated all steps of the textile industry.
Known Nothing Party
Political party that was active in the 1850s. They promoted nativist policies in response to increased immigration, especially by Catholic Irish and Germans. They were renamed the American Party.
American statesman who served as Secretary of State and Speaker of the House of Representatives. He was the leading Whig politician of the early 1800s, championed the needs of the West, and was the organizer of a series of political compromises that kept the nation together before the Civil War. His economic ideas were dubbed the American System.
Hudson River School
A group of artists of the Romantic Era who painted landscapes.
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Full name for the Mormon Church.
Leader of the Mormons after the murder of Joseph Smith. He led them along their trek to Utah.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Founder of the Transcendentalism and president of The Transcendentalist Club. His book Nature, defined the movement.
American poet and transcendentalist. His most celebrated work is the collection of poetry Leaves of Grass.
Henry David Thoreau
Most famous of all the transcendentalists, he lived for a year alone at Walden Pond.
A Christian group the flourished in the early 1800s. They promoted equality of the sexes and celibacy. Their founded in the United States was Mother Ann Lee.
Boston reformer and champion of women's rights in the early 1800s. Along with Stanton and Anthony, she helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Champion of women's rights in the early 1800s. Along with Mott and Anthony, she helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention.
Susan B. Anthony
Champion of women's rights in the early 1800s. Along with Mott and Stanton, she helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention.
Social reformer of the 1800s who worked especially to improve the conditions of jails and mental asylums.
American Temperance Society
Organization founded in 1826 to encourage limiting or banning of alcohol.
Temperance advocate of the late 1800s who famously entered bars to preach while chopping the bars to pieces with a hatchet.
Champion of education reform during the 1800s. He is remembered as the founder of public education.
Fifth president during a time after the War of 1812 called the Era of Good Feelings.
Political party founded by Martin Van Buren in the 1820s. Andrew Jackson was the first president to serve from this party.
Seventh president. Hero of the Battle of New Orleans. First democratic president and champion of the common man.
John Quincy Adams
Sixth president and son of John Adams.
Political party formed in the early 1800s to counter Andrew Jackson and the Democrats. They were led by Henry Clay and fought for Clay's American System.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator and champion of states' rights, nullification, and the concerns of slave owners in the early 1800s.
Major Native American nation in Georgia that adopted many European practices in an attempt to perpetuate their land claims but were eventually sent to Oklahoma on the Trail of Tears by Andrew Jackson.
Pieced of a finished product that are standardized so that one piece could be swapped out for an identical replacement part. Before Eli Whitney made use of this system, everything was made by craftsmen and any broken piece required a hand-crafted replacement.
A form of business in which investors are only liable up to the amount they invested.
Belief that people born in a county are better than immigrants.
The business of turning raw cotton into thread, then into cloth, and finally into finished products such as clothing.
Movement in the early 1800s in art, literature, music and philosophy that emphasized emotion, individualism, discovery of the self and connections to the natural world.
A philosophical movement that originated in the first half of the 1800s among intellectuals in New England. It taught that humans and nature were inherently good and that by rejecting traditional ways of living and thinking people could rise above the distractions of modern life and find happiness and understanding.
A perfect place. In the early 1800s, various groups of social reformers tried to create new communities to create such a place.
Cult of Domesticity
Idea popularized in the early 1800s with the onset of the Industrial Revolution that certain tasks and issues were appropriate for women. These did not include work outside the home or politics. This has also been called the Women's Sphere.
The right to vote.
Universal Public Education
The idea that all children should have the opportunity to attend schools for free that are funded by tax dollars. It was a key idea promoted by Horace Mann in the 1800s.
Political idea of the late 1700s that emphasized the stability of the nation above participation. The Founding Fathers held this belief and wrote the Constitution in order to limit the power of the people, rather than extend democracy to all.
Universal White Manhood Suffrage
All White men can vote. This was established in the early 1800s.
A movement to expand political participation to the common man and to promote the issues of everyday Americans ahead of the concerns of the financial class.
System in which an incoming president appoints supports to top government posts. It was established by Andrew Jackson.
The idea that states can ignore federal laws. This was promoted first by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in their Kentucky and Virginia Resolves and was later used by the South when they seceded at the start of the Civil War.
Burned Over District
Area in up-state New York that was home to particularly fervent religious excitement during the Second Great Awakening.
A long, gradual change in both Europe and America away from small-scale production based on human and horsepower toward the use of machines, factories, and steam/coal power.
A shift in the way Americans produced and consumed products. Over the course of the early 1800s, improvements in transportation and communication made it possible to originate a produce in one place and then move it far away to sell. This was a major shift away from subsistence farming.
Great Irish Potato Famine
A massive famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849 that drove waves of immigration of impoverished Irish to America.
Second Great Awakening
Religious movement in the first half of the 1800s that emphasizes individual connection to god, spark of divinity, Pentecostalism, postmillennialism and was driven by travelling ministers who preached at camp meetings. It was most strong in New York, but spread throughout the nation, except in the South.
The movement of the Mormons from Illinois to Utah in 1844.
Seneca Falls Convention
The first major meeting of women's rights advocates in America, which occurred in New York in 1848.
Movement to reduce the use of alcohol, and eventually to ban alcohol entirely.
Common School Movement
Movement in the 1800s founded by Horace Mann to establish public schools.
Era of Good Feelings
Time period after the War of 1812 in which James Monroe served as president. So called because there was only one functioning political party.
Agreement in the 1828 election in which Henry Clay asked his supporters in the House of Representatives to vote for John Quincy Adams in exchange for the position as Secretary of State. Andrew Jackson and his supporters believed the presidency had been stolen from them because they had received the plurality, although not majority, of votes.
Trail of Tears
Tragic forced removal of the Cherokee Nation from Georgia to Oklahoma in 1838.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 Supreme court Case in which the Marshall Court decided that the government had to honor treaties made with Native Americans. Andrew Jackson ignored the Court and forced the Cherokee along the Trail of Tears.
Canal that connected the Hudson River to the Great Lakes across New York State. It was completed in 1825 and helped establish New York City as the financial capital of nation and allowed New Englanders to easily settle the Midwest.
A federally-funded road that connected Maryland and Illinois. It was a project built as part of Henry Clay's American system in the early 1800s.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
First major railroad company in the United States.
Second Bank of the United States
Bank chartered in 1816 that was the subject of the Bank War and was killed off by Andrew Jackson.
Regional banks owned by supporters of Andrew Jackson that received deposits of federal funds after Jackson vetoed that Second Bank of the United States.
Morrill Land-Grant Acts
A collection of laws signed by Abraham Lincoln in the 1860s setting aside land for states to establish universities. They created the system of state universities that is familiar today.
Henry Clay's economic proposals. These included a protective tariff, a national bank, and federally-funded internal improvements such as canals and railroads.
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed in 1828 under John Quincy Adams. It was part of Henry Clay's American System but disproportionately favored northern manufacturers and hurt southern consumers.
Declaration of Sentiments
Statement adopted at the Seneca Falls Convention arguing for acceptance of more rights for women, including the right to vote.
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