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Terms in this set (38)
Identify a carbohydrate monomer that is absorbed from the digestive tract.
What can happen to glucose that enters the body during the absorptive state? Check all that apply.
*It can be used immediately as fuel.
*It can be stored as glycogen in the liver.
*It can be stored as glycogen in the muscles.
*It can be converted to a triglyceride and then stored in fat cells.
Triglycerides enter the blood circulation as
Triglycerides are stored primarily in this type of tissue.
Conversion of excess amino acids into carbohydrate and fats during the absorptive state takes place in the
"Glycogenolysis" refers to the state where
glucose levels are increased in the blood through the breakdown of glycogen.
"Gluconeogenesis" is the process in which
glucose levels are increased in the blood by synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources.
What occurs during the absorptive period? Check all that apply.
*Glucose absorption from the gut is high.
*Glucose utilization by cells is high.
*Synthesis of triglycerides is high.
*Breakdown of glycogen is low.
The main DISADVANTAGE of excessive gluconeogenesis during prolonged postabsorptive periods is that
the brain is exposed to levels of glucose that are too high.
The phenomenon of "glucose sparing" depends most critically on
Which organ is responsible for the synthesis of ketones from fatty acids?
Where are most glucose transporter proteins ("GLUTs") located when levels of the hormone insulin are LOW?
in the membranes of intracellular vesicles
Which hormone increases the absorption of glucose by the body's cells?
Glucose enters cells by
Insulin is the product of the
What is true of the hormone glucagon? Check all that apply.
*It helps to maintain homeostatic levels of glucose.
*It is synthesized in the same endocrine gland that secretes insulin.
The most common measurement of energy in biological systems is the kilocalorie. This is the amount of energy that would be required to raise the temperature of what quantity of water one degree Celsius?
The energy expenditure of a mammal at rest, in the postabsorptive state, and at a standard temperature is referred to as its
basal metabolic rate.
Which animal would you predict would have the highest mass-specific metabolic rate?
Hibernation in small mammals is an example of what specific phenomenon?
Leptin is a product of
Imagine you conduct a parabiosis experiment with two strains of mice, one of which lacks a functional leptin gene (ob strain) while the other lacks a functional receptor for this hormone (db strain). Which of the following outcomes would you observe?
decreased body weight in the ob mouse
Check all of the reasons that temperature is important for organisms.
It affects the rate of biochemical reactions.
How do endotherms and ectotherms derive most of their body heat?
Ectotherms derive most of their body heat through their environment, while endotherms derive most of their body heat through metabolic processes.
All of the following are methods used to exchange heat with the environment except
The best terms for a fish whose body temperature varied between 4oC during the day when it is in deep, cold ocean waters and 26oC during the night when it comes to the surface to feed would be
ectothermic and heterothermic.
You can be outside on an day where the air temperature is 85oF for hours without getting cold. However, you will get cold in 85oF water before too long unless you are very active. This difference is due to
higher heat conduction in water relative to air.
What mechanisms do ectothermic animals have for thermoregulation? Check all that apply.
*countercurrent heat exchange
*changing the rate of heat production by muscular activity
*changing the rate of heat loss by vasodilation and vasoconstriction
*relocating to warm areas when too cold, or to cooler areas when too hot
Newborn humans face thermoregulatory challenges as do small mammals. One mechanism they use to generate heat is
nonshivering thermogenesis in "brown fat."
What is an example of acclimatization?
a duck growing thick down under feathers in fall
Imagine you are working in the laboratory. You have just raised 15g of water 1 degree Celsius. How many Calories of energy did you utilize to heat the water in this procedure?
You are planning a careful study of the metabolic rate of a spotted bat (Euderma maculatum). At the last minute, you learn that you will not be able to measure caloric intake directly. Should you abandon your study?
No, because oxygen intake can be measured instead, and it will provide an indirect measurement of metabolic rate.
Predict which food item would be most effective at increasing metabolic rate via digestion of same.
In your study group, your classmates are discussing the relationship between energy expenditure and body size in different animals. There is much confusion as members of the group try to figure this out. How can you explain this to them?
A hummingbird has a larger mass-specific metabolic rate than a horse.
If an organism produces abnormally high levels of leptin, predict what would happen to that
organism's weight, and explain why the change would occur.
Weight loss would occur as a result of decreased appetite.
Predict which organism would be in the best position to be able to undergo gluconeogenesis.
an organism with an elevated triglyceride level
If a human is deprived of oxygen due to trauma or injury, why is the brain the first area of concern? Check all that apply.
*Because the heart can use glycerol and fatty acids as energy sources during the postabsorptive period.
*Because the skeletal muscles can use glycerol and fatty acids as energy sources during the postabsorptive period.
After a meal, ectotherms often situate themselves in a warm and or sunny spot. This can be critical to the health of the animal. Why is this process important?
The digestive process is enzyme catalyzed. An increase of 10 degrees Celsius can increase the rate of enzyme-driven reactions 2-3 times the original rate.
what are the two main bile acid
Identify the primary Crystal of bone that arises from calcium and phosphorus
what are the fat soulable vitamins?
What cells of the pancreas produce glucagon and insulin?
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