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Ch.10 Sampling and data collection in Quantitative Studies
Terms in this set (63)
what is term describes the entire group the researchers are interest in?
what is the term that describes the selection of portion of the population (a sample) to represent the entire population?
what term describes the characteristics that delimit the population?
e.g researchers are interested in American nursing students; does it include part time students, RNs returning for a bachelors?
2 parts of eligibility criteria
What is the term that describes whether or not a person qualifies as a member of the population?
what is the term that describes whether or not a person should be excluded from the population?
e.g) a pt who doesn't speak english or who are severely ill
what is the term that describes subpopulations of a population?
e.g., people further divided to women and male
what is the term that refers to the entire population of interest?
what is the term that refers to the portion of the target population that is accessible to the researcher, from which a sample is drawn?
what is a sample whose key characteristics closely approximate those of the population--a sampling in quantitative research?
3 ways representative sample can be achieved
what is a sampling problem in quantitative research?
what is the term that refers to systematic over-or-underrepresentation of segments of the population on key variables when sample is not representative?
strata is often used in sample selection to enhance what?
the sample's representativeness
2 sampling designs in Quantitative studies
what sampling does not involve selection of elements at random?
what sampling involves random selection of elements: each element has an equal, independent chance of being selected?
4 kinds of nonprobability sampling
nonprobability sampling is less likely than probability sampling to produce what?
what kind of of nonprobability sampling entails selecting the most conveniently available people as participants?
what is the term that refers to researchers identify population strata and figure out how many people are needed from each stratum?
e.g., i need 20 females and 10 males vs convenience giving questionnaires to the first 100 people; however it may have too many females vs males
quota sampling is similar to what other sampling?
what term refers to a sampling method that involves recruiting all people from an accessible population over a specific time interval, or for a specified sample size?
e.g., in a study of VAP in ICE pts need all patient who were admitted to an ICE over a 6 month period or first 250 people admitted to the ICU in the first 6 mo.
what is the term that is based on the belief that researchers' knowledge about the population can be used to hand-pick sample members; researcher might decide purposely to select people who are judged to be particularly knowledgeable about the issues under study?
what should be assumed if the study doesn't mention the sampling design?
that convenience sample was used
3 types of probability sampling
what is the term that involves random selection of elements from a population?
what is the most basic probability sampling?
what sampling involves researchers establishing a sampling frame, the technical name for the list of population elements?
simple random sampling
e.g)if SJSU were the accessible population, then a student roster would be the sampling frame; elements in a sampling frame are numbered and then a table of random numbers or an online random sample generator is used to draw a random sample of the desired size
what sampling involves the dividing the population into 2 or more strata, from which elements are randomly selected?
stratified random sampling
stratification is often based on what?
demographic attributes (gender, age)
what sampling involves the selection of every kth case from a list such as every 10th person on a patient list?
what is the number of study participants?
what is the term for how researcher can estimate how large their sample should be for testing their research hypotheses?
3 major types of data collection methods
how is self-report data collected?
with a formal instrument
2 kinds of instruments used in self-report
2 types of questions in a structured instrument
1)close-ended questions (fix alternative); yes or no
what are 2 adv of questionnaires (compared with interviews)?
2)possibility of anonymity, greater privacy
4 adv of interviews (compared with questionnaires)
1)higher response rates
2)appropriate for more diver audiences
3)opportunities to clarify questions or to determine comprehension
4)opportunity to collect supplementary data through observation
social-psychological scales are often incorporated into what 2 things?
what is a device that assigns a numeric score to people along a continuum, like a scale for measuring weight?
social-psychological scales quantitatively discriminate among what?
people with different attitudes, perceptions, and psychological trains
2 kinds of psychosocial scales
1)likert (agree, somewhat agree, disagree, really disagree
2)visual analog scale (pain scale)
self-reports are strong on what?
what allows access to information otherwise not available to researchers?
Observational studies allows researchers to have flexibility with regard to what 4 important dimensions?
3)method of recording observation
what is are 2 examples of a structured observation?
what is the term that represents a method of recording in a systematic fashion in the behaviors and events of interest that transpire within a setting?
category systems can vary in either of what 2 kinds of exhaustiveness?
what is the term that refers to all behaviors of a specific type recorded, and each behavior is assigned to one mutually exclusive category?
what is the term that refers to a specific behaviors, but not all behaviors, recorded
2 kinds of observational sampling
what involves the selection of time periods during which observations will occur?
time sampling (e.g., every 30 seconds at 2 minute intervals
what is the term that describes researchers selecting integral behavior or events to observe?
event sampling (e.g.,nursing shift changes)
observational methods are excellent methods for capturing many clinical what? (2)
phenomena and behaviors
observational methods have a problem of what when people are aware that they are being observed?
observational methods have a risk of what?
what are factors that can interfere with objective observation?
2 kinds of biophysiologic measurements
what is performed directly within or on living organisms?
in vivo (bp measurements)
what is performed outside of the organism's body (e.g., urinalysis)?
what measure is strong on accuracy, objectivity, validity and precision?
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