79 terms

The Skeleton: Bones and Joints

The inner framework made up of 206 bones of the body
Skeletal System
Bones and joints along with connective tissue
Bone Functions
Serve as a firm framework
Protect brain and spinal cord
Serve as levers, working with muscles to produce movement
Storehouse for calcium salts
Produce red blood cells (in the red marrow)
Medullary Cavity
Cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow
Bone Tissue
Osseous Tissue/Bone Tissue; they protect and support other body tissues and organs.
Compact Bone
The dense, hard layer of bone tissue
Haversian Canal
A channel containing nerves and blood vessels making up compact bone
Perforating Canals
Volkmann's canals/ contain larger blood vessels and nerves
Spongy Bone
Part of bone with many small pores or spaces (Cancellous Bone)
Bone Marrow
A soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells
Red Bone Marrow
Produces blood cells
Yellow marrow
Bone marrow that is yellow with fat
Outer most fibrous layer that supplies blood and nerves to the bone
Process of bone formation, during which cartilage is replaced by bone
Vascular membrane that lines the inner surface of long bones
Bone-forming cells
Living bone cells
Breakdown of bone tissue
Epiphyseal Plates
Regions of cartilage near the ends of longs bones which are active growth regions in children
Bone Markings
Bulges, depressions, and holes that serve as sites pf attachment for muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Joint surfaces, and conduits for blood vessels and nerves
A round bump on a bone where it forms a joint with another bone
A large projection of the bone
The rounded end of a bone that bits into a rounded cavity in another bone to form a joint
Narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent
Short projection of bone
An opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass
Any of various air-filled cavities especially in the bones of the skull
Shallow, basinlike depression in a bone
A natural body passageway
Axial Skeleton
The portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular Skeleton
Forms the extremities and is composed of the shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg bones
The bony skeleton of the head of vertebrates
Frontal Bone
Forms the forehead
Frontal Sinuses
Cavities above the eyes
Parietal Bones
Bones are located on each side of the skull just behind the frontal bone.
Temporal Bones
Bone on the side of the head near the ears
Ethmoid Bone
Irregularly shaped bone located between the eye orbits
Sphenoid Bone
Butterfly-shaped bone at the base of the skull
Sella Turcica
Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland
Occipital Bone
A saucer-shaped membrane bone that forms the back of the skull
Foramen Magnum
The large opening at the base of the cranium through which the spinal cord passes
An immovable joint (especially between the bones of the skull)
Coronal Suture
Joins frontal and parietal bones
Sagittal Suture
Midline of the skull, connection of parietal cones
Lambdoid Suture
Suture that arches across the posterior surface of the skull
The lower jawbone in vertebrates
Maxillary Sinus
On each side of nose below the eyes
Zygomatic Bones
Nasal Bones
Form the bridge of the nose
The thin, single, flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum
Palatine Bones
Forms the back of the hard palate and the lateral walls of the nasal cavity
Soft spot gaps between a baby's skull that slowly close up during the first 18 months of life
Vertebral Column
Cervical Vertebrae
First set of seven bones, forming the neck
Thoracic Vertebrae
Second set of 12 vertebrae; they articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine
Lumbar Vertebrae
Third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine
Sacral Vertebrae
Five vertebrae which are fused to form the sacrum in the pelvis
Coccygeal Vertebrae
Coccyx (tailbone)
The bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum
Xiphoid Process
This structure is the most inferior of the sternebrae. It is used for a landmark for CPR.
True Ribs
Top 7 pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilage
False Ribs
Last 5 pairs of ribs; attach indirectly to sternum
Intercostal Spaces
Interval between the ribs, occupied by intercostal muscles, veins, arteries, and nerves.
The collarbone
Shoulder Blade
Bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow
The inner and longer of the two bones of the human forearm
The outer and slightly shorter of the two bones of the human forearm
Trochlear Notch
A large notch in the Ulna.
Carpal Bones
Wrist bones
Fingers and Toes
Pelvic Bones
Ilium, ischium, pubis
The cup-shaped hollow in the hipbone into which the head of the femur fits to form a ball-and-socket joint
Knee Cap
Shin bone. On medial side of the leg. Bears most of the weight
The outer and thinner of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle