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Terms in this set (55)
The art and science of vine growing.
Factors of Production
Specific viticultural conditions and practices that will affect the character and quality of finished wines.
List the Factors of Production
Location / Geography
Topography / Aspect
Yearly Weather / Vintage Variation
Regional Wine Laws
Location / Geography
Site Selection -- Where exactly will the grapes grow?
Goals -- Specific to winemaker such as a large production vs small, boutique production.
Regional Laws -- Differences in region will contribute to what, when, where, and how a vine may be planted and cultivated.
Financial Considerations -- Cost of land varies greatly from region to region. While notorious regions are more costly to plant a vineyard, they have to possibility to sell the finished product at a higher value.
Where does most vine growing occur?
Between the 30 and 50 degree latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
Is vine growing possible in extreme climates?
Most varieties of grape thrive in what type of climates?
Large-scale patterns in climate; the climate of an entire region.
The climate of a particular vineyard.
The climate of a single row of vines or even a specific vine.
Strong annual variation in temperature due to the lack of proximity to significant bodies of water with moderating influences.
Hotter summers than in maritime climates, often with cold winter temperatures that can be extreme.
A climate influenced by a large body of water such as a sea or ocean.
Mild temperatures, but also involving fluctuations from year to year causing vintage variation.
Summers are hot and dry, aside from the immediate coastal areas.
Along the coasts, summers are mild due to proximity to cold water currents, but storms can also result as a consequence.
Summers are generally hot and dry. Daytime temperatures are high, but dramatic drops are often experienced overnight. (example of high diurnal shift)
Temperature Definitions of Each Climate:
High Desert --
Continental -- Cool
Maritime -- Moderate
Mediterranean -- Warm
High Desert -- Hot
The difference between average daytime high and nighttime low temperatures.
Why is diurnal shift important?
It is important for the ripening of grapes and balancing acidity and sugar.
The number of hours of sunshine a vineyard or wine region receives in a given vintage year or growing season.
Frost or Freeze
How does a fall / winter freeze damage vines?
It can kill the vines completely.
How does a spring freeze damage vines?
It can damage or freeze and kill delicate buds or flowers, preventing the vine from setting grape clusters.
Main Climate Moderators
Bodies of Water
Altitude / Elevation
How do bodies of water moderate the climate?
Bodies of water can cool or warm a wine region.
How do mountains moderate the climate?
Mountains can protect a wine region from surrounding weather or climate influences.
A dry area on one side of a mountain opposite the wind, rain, and generally poor weather.
Many of the world's best wine regions exist in rain shadows.
How does altitude and elevation moderate the climate?
With every meter of rise in elevation, temperatures drop by approximately one degree.
For warm to hot wine-growing regions, increased elevation provides cooler temperatures that help to slow grape ripening and produce more balanced wines.
How does wind moderate the climate?
Depending on the direction from which winds originate, wind can cool a growing region or lend warmth and drier air, helping prevent mold or rot.
Describe the effects of steeper hillsides on viticulture
Provide better drainage of soil
Often less fertile due to erosion
Lower chance of frost, as cool air will fall from the upper slopes
Hard to maintain during growing season AND harvest
Describe the effects of valley floors on viticulture
Pooling of air
Susceptible to frost
Sometimes overly fertile
A topographical feature of a vineyard including the angle and direction of a slope as well as its altitude
Describe the effects of aspect on viticulture
Slopes facing the sun provide warmth to vines, and those facing away provide cooling properties to vines. Either can be desirable depending on the climate of the region, and whether what is most desired is ripening or retention of acidity
Important properties of various soil types
Drainage of water
Effects of a cool climate on wine style
Grapes ripen slowly and moderately
Less sugar is produced
Acidity remains high
Less alcohol potential
Flavors are more tart and lean; less ripe and juicy
Effects of a warm climate on wine style
Grapes ripen fully
More sugar is produced
Acidity is lower
Higher alcohol potential
Flavors are more ripe, lush, and juicy
Specific influences humans exert in the vineyard affecting how and where vines are planted and harvested
The goal is to create balance in the vineyard
How the vines are spaced out in rows.
Far apart vs. close together
Training the vines to grow in specific ways to control the vine's production of grapes, leaves, and wood
How much fruit the vine produces
Measurements of Yield
Tons of grapes per acre (U.S.A)
Hectoliters per hectare (Metric)
Pounds or kilos per vine
Dropping or cutting grape bunches off of vine before harvest to focus the vine's energy on fewer, higher quality bunches
Aspects of Vineyard Management
Pests and Vine Disease
Managing the growth of the vine's leaves
To shade or expose the grape bunches
To determine the flow of air through the vine rows
Providing the vine with water through an array of methods
Not allowed by all wine regions by law
A vine louse (insect) that destroyed a third of the world's vines beginning in the late 1800's
(Slow kill: takes 15-25 years for the vine to die off)
One of the greatest threats to wine production in history
The use of chemicals or organic matter to enhance the fertility of the soil and provide nutrients to the vines
Applications that are generally sprayed to ward off mildew and rot that can seriously compromise fruit quality
When and how grapes are picked from the vine is one of many factors that determine wine style and quality
How ripe the grapes are at harvest
Few ways to determine ripeness depending on the grape variety and goal of the winemaker/vineyard
Amount of sugar in the grapes at harvest
Ripeness of the grape bunches in their totality, including stems and seeds
Ripeness specifically associated with tannins in the grape skins and seeds
Managers pass through the vineyard, picking only the ripe bunches or grapes and leaving behind the underripe grapes until they are ready
Done in multitudes
Effects of Hand Harvesting
Labor-intensive and slower than by machine
Permits greater selectivity regarding choice of bunches
Small bin collection system enables careful selection and less weight bearing down on the bottom bunches
Effects of Mechanical Harvesting
Economical and rapid
Can enhance quality if a crop is being grown in a hot region or threatened by an incoming storm
Removal by shaking the vines is indiscriminate, often resulting in grapes arriving at the winery with leaves, pests, and animals
Large bin collection system creates a greater weight bearing down on the bottom bunches resulting in bursting berries or clusters and possibly beginning the fermentation process prematurely
Entire set of factors that influence the development of the vine's fruit and the characteristics the fruit will show once vinified
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