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Women and Society Exam 1
Terms in this set (36)
physiological and reproductive differences between males and females which is established by genetic/biological testing.
an expression of traits, attitudes, and behaviors that are consistent with cultural definitions of being men and women
the label given to an individual based on appearance or other cues. examples: beards, breasts, hair length/style, voice
assigned by a doctor at birth and is represented by external genitalia
sex that is comprised of external genitalia, internal genitalia, and chromosomes
gender differences - meta analysis - hyde
only differences were found in throwing distance/velocity, aggression, and masturbation frequency
social stereotypes about certain groups of people that individuals form outside of their own conscious awareness
evaluations of gender that may appear subjectively positive but are actually damaging to people and gender equality more broadly (ex. ideas that women need to be protected by men
Division of labor that places men in managerial positions and women as the laborers below them; an example is the tendency for men to be principals and women to be teachers.
Division of genders in the workplace between similar but separate jobs. A woman, for example, may sell makeup while a man sells power tools. This can create injustice: EX- Sears
denial of inequality
Men and women are generally equal in our society; there is no inequality between them.
denial of responsibility
acknowledge the injustice but there is nothing i can do about it
framework for understanding or explaining the social world
individual level gender processes
biological and physiological, not reliant on ineraction
interaction level gender processes
ways in which social behavior is constrained or facilitated by expectations that people have regarding the traits men and women possess, how they should act, what they should believe
institutional level gender processes
how macro level patterns such as the positions to which people are assigned in society, lead to differences in the behavior and experiences of men and women
interplanetary theory of gender
Genders are significantly and innately different; men are from mars, women are from venus. Supports evolutionary or biological differences, such as the belief that men are more dominant and aggressive and women are submissive and nurturing.
five layers of biological sex
external genitalia, internal genitalia, chromosomes, levels of testosterone/estrogen, and gender identity
individuals who do not fit clearly into either sex category including XXY, X, ovotestes, prove that biological sex is not simple
unofficial expressions of approval or disapproval that are not backed by the force of law
a situation in which an individual is given two different and inconsistent messages. ex. pregnancy earns men a congrats and earns women a congrats what are you going to do about work
a rule or principle that is unfairly applied in different ways to different people or groups.
a person whose group membership makes them a minority (15% or less) in the workplace. males experience a glass escalator (advance at an accelerated rate). females experience the glass ceiling where they have a harder time forming mentorship relationships and advancing
the condition in which men are dominant and privileged, and this dominance and privilege is invisible; the ideal of masculinity
Most visible form of femininity, organized around the compliance with male domination. Because men are dominant over women, no form of femininity is dominant. Instead, there are many forms, with one being emphasized.
men who do not completely adhere to the hegemonic masculinity, but still benefit from a system that oppresses femininity
marginalized by structural factors (race/ethnicity, class) with structural barriers that make it difficult to achieve the symbolic ideals of hegemonic masculinity
subordinated to factors internal to the gender order. ex. gay men can acquire masculinity insurance
social identity threat; whe na person's identity is socially threatened, they respond by over-demonstrating qualities that illustrate membership in that identity. looks like: violence, more support for sexual coercion, more likely to support war, more likely to buy an suv
relative resources theory (hochschild)
Individual who earns more will bargain out of housework. Women tend to earn less than men, and so more often end up doing housework.
doing gender (hochschild)
Women and men do housework or avoid doing housework as a part of accomplishing gender. An example is the tendency of unemployed men to do even LESS housework than employed men
stalled revolution (Hochschild)
men's involvement in housework has not increased enough to compensate for the increase in women's employment
set of advantages and disadvantages to individuals that come out as the result of their gender. gendered with its interactions among and between genders, there are gendered divisions of labor, there are gendered symbols and images
while some women move into male-dominate fields, other women are pushed out. this is due to lack of resources and mentoring for women, discriminatory practices, isolation and exclusion, and hostile work environments
The idea that men and women should receive equal pay when they perform work that involves comparable skills and responsibility or that is of comparable worth to the employer; also known as pay equity.
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