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Terms in this set (358)
Stimulates parietal cells to release HCl. Inhibited by somatostatin, which is stimulated by HCl. Elevated pH stimulates G cells to release this.
located in stomach and release pepsinogen
acts on parietal cells to promote HCl secretion
Rate of the beat; calculated as the difference between two given frequencies.
Electron + positron emission.
Emitted from nucleus. A form of electromagnetic radiation that consists of high-energy photons. Represent ionizing radiation.
The loss of an alpha-particle, a helium nucleus (2 protons and 2 neutrons).
Breakdown of a neutron into a proton and electron, and the expulsion of the newly created electron. Emission of an electron or conversion of a neutron into a proton, electron, and neutrino
A type of beta decay where a positron (electron with positive charge) and neutrino (massless particle) are released.
Elements with no unpaired electrons, meaning their subshells are completely filled. Unresponsive to external magnetic fields. A property of all materials and makes a weak contribution to the material's response to magnetic field. A substance is called diamagnet when diamagnetism is the only contribution to magnetism.
Elements with unpaired electrons, meaning that a subshell is not completely filled. Electrons will align with external magnetic field because they have parallel spins.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No two electrons in same atom can have same 4 quantum numbers.
Soft metallic solids with low densities and low melting points. Group 1 (comes before alkaline in alphabetical order). Exist only in compounds.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Harder, more dense, and melt at higher temperatures than alkali metals. Group 2. Exist only in compounds in nature. Heavier ones are more reactive.
Easy movement of electrons gives them metallic characters. Ductile (easily stretched), malleable (easily hammered into thin strips), luster. All solids at room temp. except mercury.
Horizontal row on periodic table.
Vertical rows on periodic table. Similar chemical properties.
Subset of gestalt principles. States that humans perceive the world in a way in which they group similar elements together.
Part of the peripheral nervous system and responsible for making myelin sheath around peripheral neurons.
pH=pKa. The point when half of your starting species have been protonated (base) or deprotonated (acid). [HA] = [A]. Flattest part of curve.
located halfway along the steep portion of curve. Mbase × Vbase = Macid × Vacid = moles acid for a monoprotic acid. If diprotic acid, most acidic proton creates the equivalence point.
Molecules which have a hydroxyl group bound to a central carbon.
The environment can only support a finite number of individuals.
2nd Law of thermodynamics
Total entropy in a closed system can never decrease, it either stays the same or increases. Open systems are not discussed in this law.
Make the lipid bilayer permeable to hydrogen ions, which eliminates the electrochemical gradient.
Inhibits the electron transport chain by directly affecting ATP synthase.
Blocks the passage of electrons from cytochrome oxidase a3 to oxygen, since it has a very high binding affinity for the enzyme.
The change in an allele frequency in a population due to random sampling. Influence from genetic drift is particularly important in small populations. The random changes in allele frequencies could result in the elimination of an existing allele from a population.
Serves as both an ammeter and a voltmeter and an ohmmeter.
When a voltage is applied, charges will accumulate on the plates. Used to temporarily store energy in a circuit. Electric field is constant.
The ability to store charge per unit voltage.
A sociological concept which states that those who are ill enter a different role in society, one of sanctioned or permissible deviance. Individuals who are ill are allowed to not participate in certain social roles and should actively work on improving their health.
Structures important for cell-to-cell adhesion and very important for tissue that experiences a high degree of mechanical stress (cardiac tissue). Anchored to cytoskeleton, strongest cellular adhesion. Not a form of cell communication.
Type of bias related to memory
When a homogenous group is so concerned with maintaining unanimity that they fail to evaluate all options. Members see themselves as part of an in-group working against an out-group opposed to their goals.
How individual attitudes are shaped by social factors.
The manner in which the terms of the study are defined
Fundamental attribution error
When an individual interprets anothers actions incorrectly by overemphasizing internal characteristics instead of external events. Occurs when a person assigns too much weight to internal causes rather than external factors when trying to explain the cause of another persons behavior.
Whether a variable is able to predict a certain outcome.
Emotion involves physiological arousal with observation of social cues for labeling that emotion. Physiological arousal is adjoined to observation and cognitive labeling of that emotion. Emotion processing has three distinct steps:
cognitive interpretation of the situation
experience of the emotion
People tend to perform their best when they're moderately emotionally stimulated.
Expressive Displays (how you express your emotions)
Subject Experiences (how you feel and interpret your emotions)
Informational social influence
Refers to a situation where a medical student would conform by turning to to others in their group for information about what is correct.
Publicly and privately conform and accept the behavior.
Privately disagree with something but publicly conform.
The tendency to adopt extreme views when in a group.
When one person in a group doesn't take on their share of their responsibility (group projections)
Neutral type of stress. Happens when you are exposed to something stressful, but it doesn't actively or directly affect you. Ex: News of a disaster on the other side of the world.
Social desirability Bias
Type of bias related to how people respond to research questions.
Harder for an individual to reconcile different pieces of information relation to colors than to reconcile similar pieces of information.
Relates to the way in which people attempt to explain various behaviors and events. Attempt to interpret actions by assigning causes to them.
The type of memory related to facts and information.
The tendency for people to perform better in the presence of others
A cognitive action, not a behavior.
Ratio of output force to input force (levers, pulleys, etc)
Complementary DNA (cDNA)
DNA that is made from single stranded RNA via reverse transcriptase. An example of cDNA is the DNA that is made by retroviruses and can be used to clone prokaryotic genes for expression in eukaryotes.
Uncoiled, can be read
Tightly condensed chromatin
mutes transcription; can be inherited
schedules tend to produce the highest response rates that are most resistant to extinction, which is why casinos use them.
the unpleasant feeling a person experiences when holding two contradictory beliefs at the same time.
an instrument that measures the potential difference between any two points on a circuit. Attached in parallel to circuit, does not affect voltage of circuits. Infinite resistance (no current).
Galvanic cell (battery)
a device that uses spontaneous redox reaction to produce an electrical potential.
a device that uses an electrical potential to drive a non-spontaneous reaction.
an instrument that measures the current flowing through a circuit. Connected in series. Zero resistance.
behave as both galvanic and electrolytic cells. when rechargeable batteries discharge, they function as galvanic cells. an external power source such as the running engine of a car can force current in the opposite direction when the battery recharges. thus a recharging battery can be considered an electrolytic cell. consists of one or more galvanic cells in which oxidation occurs at the anode and reduction at the cathode. Ionization energy determines voltage. Electrons move from anode to cathode. Current moves from cathode to anode.
catalyze rxns where functional groups are added to double bonds or double bonds formed via removal of functional groups. ATP synthase. Break molecules into two smaller molecules without using water or redox reactions.
catalyze the transfer of electrons or hydrogen ions (oxidation-reduction rxns)
catalyze rxns in which functional groups are transferred from one location to another (like kinases that move phosphate groups onto their substrates)
catalyze the transfer of groups within a molecule with effect of producing isomers (including stereoisomers and constitutional isomers)
an enzyme that cleaves peptide bonds to activate them (zymogen)
bind to enzymes via covalent bonds
the dissolved inorganic ions inside and outside the cell. assist in transport of substances via creation of electrochemical gradient. combine and solidify to give strength to a matrix. can act as cofactors
his functional group is found via peptide bond. it is an amine connected to a carbonyl carbon
between phosphate group of one nucleotide and the third carbon of the pentose sugar of the next nucleotide forming a sugar-phosphate backbone
in contrast to starch and glycogen, it is formed of beta linkages. Humans do not have enzymes necessary to digest.
effective nuclear charge
the positive charge that a particular electron experiences. If discussing 1s electron, for example, atom with highest number of protons has greatest effective charge.
formed by an ester linkage between a long chain alcoholr and long-chain fatty acids
similar to phosphoglycerides, but backbone is an amino alcohol
theories of his built off theories of freud (stages of development). Developed theories regarding psychological development, individuals pass through crises that form and define ones identity
precursors to sterols. structurally similar to the fused 4-ring system in steroids and are he metabolic precuroses to them. steroids hormones have names that end in "one", "en" or "ol".
massless and uncharged
due to the presence of hydrophobic R groups on the protein, surrounding molecules assemble into an organization structure called this. Forces hydrophobic R groups on inner part of protein and hydrophilic to outside, which increases entropy of system.
density of substance:density of water
If higher than 1, the height of the substance in a barometer is less than than of water. Directly proportional. SGxH = SG2xH, where SG water is 1.
measures velocity of fluid moving around it
foot in the door
when someone has agreed to make a small commitment towards something, they are then much more likely to follow up with a greater commitment.
physiological and cognitive aspects of emotion occur simultaneously and independently, behavioral expression is last aspect.
the substance whose quantity or concentration is to be determined in a titration
lowers boiling point by reduced atmospheric pressure. often used when components have very high boiling points and would otherwise be difficult to distill. separate compounds according to boiling point.
allows for nucleation sites or places to start forming bubbles when transitioning from liquid to gas during boiling (can also be achieved by scratching the inside of the flask)
do not lower enzyme's affinity for substrate, Km remains same but Vmax decreases. No preference for enzyme or E-S complex.
compete with the substrate by binding reversibility with non-covalent bonds to the active site. Raise apparent Km but do not change Vmax (Requires more substrate to reach Vmax). Can be overcome.
Km decreases since substrate stays bound to enzyme. Vmax decreases because substrate stays bound to enzyme for longer
lower vmx, either raise or lower Km
organisms which may create ATP through aerobic respiration in the presence of oxygen, however are also able to use fermentation to create energy in the absence of oxygen. These bacteria can grow in both aerobic and anaerobic settings.
describe a set of idea of how humans humans evaluate images and objects and organize what they see into patterns and groups.
Dear king philip come over for good soup
a glycoprotein layer around oocytes. Important for binding sperm and allowing for the enzymatic reaction that allows for release of the genetic contents into the egg.
the first substrate changes the shape of the enzyme, allowing other substrates to bind more easily (negative cooperative occurs as well). So enzyme must contain 2 binding sites for this to occur.
proportional to size of system
independent of size of system
catalyze condensation reactions coupled w/ hydrolysis oh high energy molecules
regulate hydrolyase reactions
measure the optical power of lenses and is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length, thus the units are 1/A
all non-cellular fluid that exists in the intravascular space. contains clotting factors, albumin, globulins, various electrolytes, glucose. Platelets, RBCs, WBCs, are NOT found in plasma
law of proximity
we tend to perceive objects close to each other in groups, rather than a large collection of individual pieces
external locus of control
they believe that they have no control over events in their lives and things that could happen to them.
law of similarity
we perceive similar objects as being grouped together
cialdini's 6 principles of persuasion
providing a favor (reciprocity)
social proof (conveying the impression that lots of people have your opinion)
obtaining a written commitment of agreement from a juror
consistency- pressure to behave within their own words and actions
scarcity- people over value things that are rare
authority- people agree if they think you're legit
law of symmetry
we tend to perceive stimuli as grouped symmetrically around a center point
networks of information that allow certain other kinds of information to be transmitted easily
asserts that people develop understandings and knowledge of the world through interactions with other people, and that the mediating force in this interaction is primarily language. Not based on nature but what is communicated through language
operant conditioning. Results in attitudes. Rewards that reinforce behavior
case control designs
compare information about individual with a disease or condition against people without the disease or condition
longitudinal cohort design
follows a group of individuals and assess them at multiple interval overs two years
describe the number of deaths caused by a disease within a specific population and a certain amount of time
describes how common a disease is. how many people (new cases and current) have a disease within a certain amount of time.
compare the risk of multiple sclerosis among one group with the risk among another group
the number of new cases of a disease during a specific time interval
arousal is essential to sustaining most behaviors
depression stems from a reduction in the motivating forces of arousal
influences the strength of a relationship between two other variables
explains the relationship between two other variables
at moderate to high temperatures (including normal physiological temps), cholesterol increases the rigidity of cell membranes by attracting adjacent phospholipid tails
not required in smooth muscle
chromosomal arms of homologous chromosomes cross over in two different places along the arm. this results in a section in the middle of each chromosome being exchanged. both single and double cross over events will only affect on arm of each chromosome a double cross-over event occurs in two different places along the chromosome arm, resulting in a segment exchange, not necessarily a reversal of the original cross-over.
examine a group of individuals at one point in time
cytoplasmically inherited disorders
transmitted via mitochrondrial DNA, normally ovum due to their dominant size
The most effective technique for sterilization of lab materials. Brings the materials to a temperature over 120ºC and a pressure over 2 atm, which is enough to kill almost anything.
released from the adrenal cortex in response to low blood pressure. its primary function is to increase Na+ reabsorption in the distal tubule and collection duct. upregulates the Na+/K+ pump along the lining of the nephron, pumping ions creating gradient for water reabsorption. Increases Na+ reabsorption and increases secretion of K+
add phosphate groups to their substrates, so the "general effect" of a phosphorylase on its substrate is similar to that of a kinase. Specifically, kinases transfer phosphate groups from a high-energy source (usually ATP) to their substrates, while phosphorylases transfer phosphate from an inorganic phosphate source.
lower brainstem; pons, cerebellum, medulla oblongata. Controls balance, motor coordination, breathing, digestion, and general arousal processes.
Receives sensory and motor information from rest of body; associated with involuntary reflex responses triggered by visual or auditory stimuli
pH < pKa; A-/HA will be low b/c HA will be high. log(A-/HA) will be negative
The higher it is the more acidic. The stomach is most acidic in gastrointestinal tract.
produced by the parathyroid gland and increases blood calcium levels.
always perpendicular to the direction of motion, so it can never do work on particle moving through it. KE never changes for particle (Speed doesn't either)
Drive reduction motivation
motivation based on the ned to fulfill a certain drive, like hunger or thirst
living standards are increasing in absolute terms; you are better off than your parents and your children will be better off than you.
the movement from one social level to a higher one or a lower one by either changing jobs or marrying
when a person in a group loses awareness of their individuality and acting a way they wouldn't normally act if they were alone. When a person joins a group and loses his or her individual identity, instead taking on the identity of a whole group.
how new ideas spread
the adding of subunits to make a longer strand of a macromolecule.
a type of bias related to how people are chosen to participate
a negative type of stress that builds over time and is bad for your body. It happens when you perceive a situation to be threatening to you in some way (physically or emotionally) and your body becomes primed to response to that threat.
a world view in which one's own culture and traditions are seen as inherently superior to those of other people. It is propagated from one generation to the next through a variety of cultural channels, the first and the most important of which is the family.
secrete products directly into blood stream, hence they're ductless. Mostly hormones that are steroid based. Some glands derived from mesoderm
The unfair treatment and harmful actions against others based on their memberships in a specific social group, a change in behavior.
Prejudice + action
optically reactive reagent or catalyst used to transform an optically inactive starting material into an optically active product
the generalizability of the research to settings beyond the study
a phenomenon in social psychology where people stand by during a situation where someone else is at risk, they do not intervene.
a positive type of stress that happens when you perceive a situation as challenging, but motivating. Eustress is usually enjoyable
Transition metals usually have vacant d orbitals (making them electron deficient lewis acids) that can accept electrons from incoming ligands (lewis bases, electron pair donors). Always lose electrons from their s orbital first (it is higher in energy!) Additionally, some transition metals will pull electrons from their s-orbitals in the ground state to obtain half-filled subshells (ex the ground state of Cr is [Ar]3d5 4s1
Perceptible differences are proportional to the initial perception. 1-9% is not perceptible.
the end of the liquid-gas equilibrium curve and reflects the point where temperatures and pressures are so high that the liquid and gaseous forms are indistinguishable and there are no longer equilibrium between gaseous and liquid phases.
the extent to which social pressure from a majority group could influence a person to conform. Incorrect answers regarding lengths of lines, then measured number of times each unknowing participant conformed to the majority view.
Used in the transport of vesicles and the positioning of organelles within the cell. as part of this role, they form structures that assist in the transport of phagosomes (vesicles that contain particles that have been engulfed via phagocytosis) to the lysosomes of the cell. Microtubules form the spindle apparatus that is an essential part of both mitosis and meiosis. Composed of dimers of the protein tubulin. Mitotic spindle is composed of microtubules which are cytoskeletal components made of tubulin.
the process by which nucleotides are strung together to form a single-stranded RNA strand.
Refers to a situation where the medical student would conform to a behavior because they like or respect the person who exhibits it.
one option has both positive and negative aspects.
two options are both appealing
both options are unappealing
consist of two options with both appealing and negative characteristics.
enriching an already existing mixture of stereoisomers such that is contains more than 50% of one enantiomer.
motivation to do something based on an external reward (money or fame)
boost inner motivation to succeed and learn to be a good physician
type of memory that is formed based on association between two things.
a type of memory related to actions or behaviors
when on participant drops a long-term experiment or study
type of memory related to personal experiences
disapproval attached to disobeying the expect norms so that a person is discredited as less than normal. Stigmitized individuals may be discredited as less than normal.
microfilaments (actin filaments)
smaller than microtubules or intermediate filaments; play an important role in muscle contraction, but they are not found in the mitotic spindle
play a role in cell adhesion; they do not make up the mitotic spindle.
swapping of genes between multiple bacteria. Involves production of a special conjugation pilus (sex pilus) by one bacterium and transfer through it of DNA to another bacterium. It requires special genes for the pilus and these are usually present on a plasmid, as separate extragenomic strand of DNA not incorporated into the bacterium's own DNA. Plasmid is referred to as the fertility or F factor. A feature of gram-negative bacteria. Confers the advantages of sexual reproduction on the bacterium. Benefits by being able to move from one host bacterium to other through the conjugation pilus.
identifies unique atoms with odd mass numbers (usually protons) by measuring their spin states when different external magnetic field strengths are applied. The technique does not identify whole functional groups. Right = upfield, left = downfield.
lipids that can act as hormones, bind intracellularly.
determined by hydrogen bonding of polypeptide chain
reduce vapor pressure of a solution, which lowers the melting point and raises the boiling point.
temperature at which vapor pressure of a solution is equal to the atmospheric pressure.
a horizontal force
a force applied here results in no torque. the further you get from here, the greater the force, the more susceptible to injury. rFsintheta=torque.
the substance whose quantity or concentration is to be determined in a titration.
aldehyde --> primary alcohol
CA --> aldehyde
No effect on secondary alcohol
stretching frequency falls in the range of 1700-1750 cm-1, sharp peak
stretching frequency is expected to fall in the range of 3200-3500 cm-1, broad peak
indicates that reaction is spontaneous under standard conditions, and that at equilibrium, the products of the reaction predominate over the reactants. This is indicated by Keq > 1 and can be clearly seen in the relationship between ΔG and Keq.
total internal reflection
can only result when a ray of light begins in a higher-index material and reaches a boundary with a lower-index one (e.g. starting in water and moving towards air)
count up the number of bonds and lone pairs. For example, ammonia (NH3) has three bonds and one lone pair around its central nitrogen atom, for a total of four regions of electron density. This orbital hybrid therefore needs four orbitals to hybridize: s, p, p, and p. Thus, ammonia is an sp3 hybrid. Only refers to covalent bond, not ionic.
Two lone pairs and four bonds gives us six total regions of electron density
In order for the reactions to make the beaker hot to the touch, they must be exothermic. All exothermic reactions have a negative △Hreaction.
must be expressed in Newtons (kg•m/s2) or their equivalent
erode the base or foundation of (a rock formation)
describes a process of binding through complementary nucleotides. Used to identify DNA or RNA molecules with sequences similar to those of a labeled probe.
the process by which nucleotides are strung together to form a single-stranded RNA strand, not the joining of two complementary strands
e- can get further from the nucleus (greater London dispersion forces, greater boiling point).
bonds are longer and weaker than alkene. EWG decreases its reactivity.
good when using strong base
most stable structure
Part of the innate immune system comprised of plasma proteins synthesized primarily by hepatocytes. A clear example of innate immunity, being a form of host defense that is non-specific and does not adapt in response to antigens. However, there is evidence of cross-talk between the complement system and adaptive immunity. Components are distinct from leukocytes and components of the inflammatory system and primarily synthesized in the liver.
the higher this is, the higher mass is. Volume or density does not affect this.
do not determine protein product, just stabilize intermediate
catalyze the rate of both the forward and reverse reaction
turnover constant (kcat)
not changed by epigenetic alterations (just the way it is read)
when crossing over occurs (the only change in chromosome sequence)
shorter in rapidly producing cells (cancer)
Poly A tail
synthesized by an enzyme, not DNA
1 is inactive in somatic cells
depends on depth and density, not shape
causes a greater radius than a normal blood vessel, resulting in greater pressure and lesser velocity according to bernoullies equation.
mass flow rate (I)
I = density x Qf
double bond between every other pair of carbon atoms
Alcohol + anhydride
red blood cells
cannot perform gluconeogenesis. constantly produce lactate, even in presence of oxygen (no mito).
heat transfer via fluid (gas or liquid) movements (breeze)
formation requires more than that to make liquid (greater deltaH)
must have K > 1
heat engine running backwards. Must expel more heat than it takes in when it runs perpetually. If no heat reservoir outside of where it runs, the room will eventually heat up.
base changes that occur between similarly structured bases
base changes that occur between dissimilar bases
single nucleotide polymorphisms
common variants that can occur between individuals
allows for separation using polarity
used to detect levels of gene expression
highest mass in mass spectrometry
RNA is injected into host cell and reverse transcribed in host cell
temperature at which substance cannot be liquified regardless of pressure applied
individuals expected to perform poorly, thus have higher levels of anxiety
stages 1-4, REM
effective nuclear charge (Zeff)
amount of charge felt by the most recently added electron Increases: L--> Right and Top --> bottom
constructed theories of cognitive development which stated that child development passes through distinct stages
p proportional to 1/v
v proportional to T
transfer of genes via a viral vector
process of picking up stray DNA from the environment and incorporating it
James-lange theory of emotion
behavioral and physiological aspects of emotion (like increased heart rate and shouting) lead to cognitive aspects of emotion (understanding a situation is scary and feeling afraid)
inhibit the ability to form blood clots and close open wounds
individual with more talent and skill have more power. equal opportunity is important for justifying meritocracy. rewarding individuals for talent or effort.
the value that various thing have within a society
where solid, liquid, gas forms all exist
oparin and haldane
methane (CH4) ammonia, hydrogen (H2), and water were only gases present in primitive atmosphere (no O2).
miller and urey
proved these gases and lighting could give rise to simple organic compounds that evolved into more complex life
constriction within a pipe causes changes in the flow and pressure of a fluid.
light entering a region with higher n bends towards the normal (smaller theta) and light entering a region with lower n bends away from normal (greater theta)
decrease in intensity of a light as it travels through a medium due to reflection through a media
time between oscillations in a wave, measured in seconds
units of power of a lens. 1/f
light focuses in front of retina; corrected with diverging lens
reflection off a nonplanar surface, leading to scattering of light rays
thyroid c cell hormone
posterior pituitary hormones
ADH (vasopressin) and oxytocin. Made in hypothalamus
anterior pituitary hormones
FSH, LH, ACTH (increase in this causes increase in cortisol), TSH, Prolactin, GH
phosphate PO4 3-
PTH; works in kidney, bone, and blood
Many Babies Get Naps
Morula, Blastula, Gastrula, Neurula
a skeletal muscle, not innervated by SNS
respond to specific wavelength
causes pupil dilation
secretes aldosterone (glucorticoids and minerocorticoids)
increase in it causes luteal surge in follicular phase
LH and FSH
stimulate production of LH and FSH, inhibited by LH induced androgens
cyotoxic T cells
cell mediated immunity
specific and acquired immunity (B cells)
delays contraction of the heart ventricles
sets rhythmic contractions
C = P x solubility. C is concentration of dissolved, P is partial pressure, solubility is intrinsic property that does not change
innervates diaphragm via phrenic nerve
responsible for expiration
downregulating lymphocytes that react too strongly to self-antigens displayed by MHC molecules (causes autoimmune disorders when it doesn't work)
downregulating lymphocytes that are inactive
large intestine is responsible for water reuptake
brush border of small intestine responsible for disach. digestion
first part of small intestine where most chemical digestion takes place
protein digestion via pepsin
reabsorption of nutrients small intestine
delivers fats to blood
releases trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylases, bicarbonate ions, lipases
release minerals into blood
exchange nutrient and waste with blood
where red blood cells develop
rings of mineralized bone that serve to support the strength of bones
small openings in compact bone that allow for exchange of nutrients between larger vascular systems and individual osteocytes in bones
large systems of blood vessels and lymph that transport nutrients and waste throughout the blood
Stroke Volume x Heart Rate
Total peripheral resistance x Cardiac output (like V=IR)
Contains a hemiacetal at the end and is capable of undergoing mutarotation and being oxidized by ag+. Ring-opening occurs at hemiacetal group and intermediate is an aldehyde. Sucrose is non-reducing.
Principle quantum number (n)
Proportional to potential energy of an electron which is proportional to qxq1/r^2. It is indirectly related to approximate radial size of electron cloud. Designates the shell number of the electron, with the lowest number closest to the nucleus.
3300 cm^-1 sharp
> 3000 cm^-1
light focuses behind retina; corrected with converging lens
density(object)/density(fluid) = W(air)/W(air) - W(fluid)
Doppler effect ultrasound
sound wave emitted by or reflected from moving object will change its frequency based on the relative speed of the object
self reported info is always vulnerable to this
Complex III --> IV
Complex I and II --> Complex III
have high GC content and have GC base pairs at 5' and 3' end
loose conformation of DNA that is readily accessible for transcription: good for continuously expressed genes
lining of mouth, nervous system, epidermis, eye
blood cells, connective tissues, bones, muscle, tendons, kidney, heart, gonads
bronchi; bladder; stomach (mostly epithelial tissue), digestive tube and associated organs, liver
when a concept is activated, the activation spreads to related concepts
depth of processing
type of attention applied to words during encoding
serial position effect
memory of words and beginning and end of a list
subcomponent of working memory
irrelevent info interfering w/ recall
requires info. previously stored in long-term memory, which can impede the learning of new information
people with rich parents get rich themselves (perpetuation of inequality through social institutions)
change in social class between generations
used as a % level in developed countries (compare to absolute poverty)
internal locus of control
attributing an outcome or behavior to a personal trait
evaluation of another culture based on their standards
tendency to favor information that confirms existing beliefs (stronger for emotionally charged subjects)
a group with an identifiable membership that engages in concerted action to achieve a common purpose
culture continuity in public dissonance
the continued debate over something
when individuals in agreement over something discuss a topic and views get more extreme
social relations of capital, power, and status as driving forces in society
norms and rituals
lack of social norms, which leads to a breakdown in the connection between an individual and their community
idea of hereditary genius
immigrants or minorities take up aspects of mainstream culture
norms and values (media)
objetive position within social heirarchy
preoperational- not masted concepts of conservation
concrete operation- mastered conservation
spontaneous and autonomous part of self
part of self formed in interaction with others and general social environment
berinmo speaker's perceptual discrimination performance will be limited by their inability to classify blue and green stimuli into linguistic categories
refers to different treatment between social groups at the system level that generally results from subtle and possibly unintentional practices rather than blatant discriminatory action
controls cortisone secretion
controls progesterone secretion
controls thyroxin secretion
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