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13 terms

Chapter 2-3: Carbon Compounds

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polymerization
process when large compounds are built by joining smaller ones together
monomers
small units that can join together with other small units to form polymers
polymers
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
carbohydrates
compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in a ratio of 1: 2: 1
monosaccharides
single sugar molecules
polysaccharides
large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
lipid
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oil, and waxes
nucleic acids
macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus
nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
nucleic acids that contains the sugar deoxyribose
protein
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
amnio acid
compound with an amino group (-NH2) on one end and carboxyl group (-CO2H) on the other end