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Terms in this set (70)
countries with strong economics and a high quality of life
Countries with medium or low levels of industrialization that have medium or low levels of per capita GDP; included countries such as China, India, Brazil, Mexico and many African Countries.
very poor, limited resources, corrupt economies and governments, high population rate.
Earth's crust and solid upper mantle, broken into tectonic plates
All the water at and near the surface of the earth, 97% of which is in oceans
Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere
A mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon.
loss in area or coverage of an ecosystem (chief causes are agriculture expansion and lumbering)
ecosystems are broken down from large, continuous areas into smaller parcels (agriculture, cities, highways, reservoirs)
replacing one set of organisms in an ecosystem with another (replacement in North American grasslands)
the makeup of the replacement set of organisms is significantly less diverse than original set of organisms ("monoculture", extinction)
incorporation of pollutants into ecosystem
too much of an organism that is invasive (euthrophication)
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
A complex arrangement of interrelated food chains illustrating the flow of energy between interdependent organisms.
The hierarchical levels of the food chain through which energy flows from primary producers to primary consumers, secondary consumers and so on. Producers, primary, secondary, tertiary, detrivores
An environmental factor that prevents an organism or population form reaching its full potential of distribution or activities
events that change communities, remove or destroy organisms from communities, or alter resource availability
predicts that opportunistic species will be the first to inhabit available habitat after disturbance, states that there is a climax state of environment that cannot get any better
the characteristics of disturbances help us understand the impact of a disturbance and how an ecosystem will respond to disturbance
the idea that the earth possesses a planetary-scale control system that functions to keep it fit for lif
Change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.
A characteristic that improves an individual's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait; an organism that is heterozygous for a certain trait.
causes of speciation
no interbreeding or no fertile offspring, geographic isolation
Chemical or physical factors that limit the existence, growth, abundance, or distribution of an organism.
generalists vs specialists
Generalists are able to use a wide array of habitats and resources. Specialists are organisms that require specific requirements.
An interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
In a biological community various populations sharing environmental resources through specialization thereby reducing direct competition
Mutual evolutionary set of adaptations of two interacting species
Study of rates of colonization and extinction on islands based on size, shape, and distance from inhabited areas. As size of island increases, biodiversity increases
Species that have naturally evolved in an area
An organism that is carried into a new location by people.
plants and animals that have migrated to places where they are not native
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion. Has to kill before reproduction.
racial purity, improved human race, started IQ testing, Ellis Island, Hitler
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy
The continual movement of water among Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surface through evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
solar energy in water cycle
latent heating causes evaporation
Pavement or buildings that do not allow water penetration
Flow of water from the land surface into the subsurface.
underground water that is held in the soil and in pervious rocks
H2O that does not infiltrate ex.rivers, streams, Lakes, oceans, ponds
All the land that drains into the river either directly or through its tributaries; a watershed.
interconnected system of tributaries, creeks, streams, rivers, etc. in an drainage basin that feed into a main waterway
A body of rock or sediment that stores groundwater and allows the flow of groundwater.
The upper level of the saturated zone of groundwater.
mineral particles, organic matter, air, and water that regulate a support plant growth
The raising of livestock for food by moving herds from place to place to find pasture and water.
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Farming in fixed and permanent fields.
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Large scale farming done for profit
environmental impacts of agriculture
causes air pollution and depletion of forests, Coal cause acid rain, smog, contributes to global warming, Disturbs large area
human impacts of agriculture
artificially driven conditions, reduction of biodiversity, GMOS and pesticides on health, sterilization or cancer
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
Accumulation of salts in soil that can eventually make the soil unable to support plant growth.
includes several methods of reducing the number of times fields are tilled or plowed in a year. Less soil is destroyed by plowing, the less likely it is to be . Sometimes old plants are left in place to protect the soil from blowing away.
crop rotation and fallowing
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil, the practice of allowing plowed or cultivated land to remain uncropped or only partially cropped for one or more growing seasons
a proccess by which pipes placed near plant roots drip only as much water as the plants need.
concurrent use of forestry and agricultural techniques on the same land area to improve degraded soil and offer economic benefits
integrated pest management
A combination of pest control methods that, if used in the proper order and at the proper times, keep the size of a pest population low enough that it does not cause substantial economic loss
Rows of large trees or bushes planted between fields to help block the wind and prevent soil erosion.
a fertilizer that is derived from animal or vegetable matter
causes of famine
drought; size of population; spreading deserts; poor farming increases erosion; deforestation; control and destruction of food (used as weapon in political disruptions), war
A severe shortage of food (as through crop failure) resulting in violent hunger and starvation and death.
famine in india
El Nino, changed weather patterns, Famine was common under British rule (50 years). Famine was due to lack of food in certain regions and the available food was expensive
the way people own, occupy, and use land
A shift in agricultural practices in the twentieth century that included new management techniques, mechanization, fertilization, irrigation, and improved crop varieties, and resulted in increased food output, benefits just the wealthy
new green revolution
comes with pesticides, high GMOs, irrigation use
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