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Human Geography Ch. 11 Agriculture Vocab
Terms in this set (47)
the production of crops without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers
_____ is the deliberate tending of crops and livestock to produce food, feed, and fiber.
primary economic activities
_____ involve those products closest to the ground, such as agriculture, ranching, hunting and gathering, and fishing.
secondary economic activities
_____ are those activities that take a primary product and manufacture it - that is, change it into something else such as toys, ships, processed foods, chemicals, and buildings.
tertiary economic activities
_____ are part of the service industry, connecting producers to consumers and facilitating commerce and trade.
quaternary economic activities
_____ are those concerned with information or the exchange of money or goods.
quinary economic activities
_____ are those tied into research or higher education.
genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention.
crops that are produced by cultivating either the roots or cuttings from the plants.
plants that are reproduced by cultivating seeds
First Agricultural Revolution
the _____ achieved plant domestication and animal domestication.
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control.
hundred of millions of farmers are involved in _____, growing only enough food to survive.
engaged in by farmers that move from place to place in search of better land. This agriculture is primarily found in tropical and subtropical zones, where traditional farmers had to abandon plots of land after the soil became infertile.
one specific kind of shifting cultivation is _____, reflecting the central role of the controlled use of fire in places where this technique is used.
Second Agricultural Revolution
this would move agriculture beyond subsistence to generate the kinds for surpluses needed to feed thousands of people working in factories instead of agricultural fields.
The Von Thunen Model
is often described as the first effort to analyze the spatial character of economic activity
Third Agricultural Revolution
the _____ has its principal orientation in the development of genetically modified organisms
The recently successful development of higher-yield, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries, which led to increased production per unit area and a dramatic narrowing of the gap between population growth and food needs
genetically modified organisms
crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods
rectangular survey system
the prevailing survey system in the United States, the one that appears as checkerboards across agricultural fields
metes and bounds survey
approach in which natural features were used to demarcate irregular parcels of land
longlot survey system
this system divided land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals
longlot survey system
survey system found in the Canadian Maritimes and in parts of Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas
metes and bounds survey
approach adopted along the eastern seaboard
Germanic system in which all land passes to the eldest son
individual farmhouses lie quite far apart; the land is intensively cultivated but by machine rather than by hand
by far the most prevalent rural residential pattern in agricultural areas. When houses are grouped together in tiny clusters or hamlets
in many low-lying areas of Western Europe, villages are located on dikes and levees, so they take on these characteristics
It may have begun as a small hamlet at the intersection of two roads and then developed by accretion.
the European version of the East African circular village, with its central cattle corral
this layout was first used by Slavic farmer-herdsmen in Eastern Europe and was later modified by Germanic settlers
farm village that was fortified to protect their inhabitants against marauders
farm village that originated from the Fertile Crescent, because the first farmers there faced attacks from the horsemen of Asia's steppes and clustered together to ward off this danger
more modern village, notably planned rural settlement, may be arranged on a grid pattern
Centuries ago the Spanish invaders of Middle America laid out _____ and towns, as did other colonial powers elsewhere in the world.
the agriculture of large scale grain producers and cattle ranches, mechanized equipment and factory-type labor forces, plantations and profit.
dependence on a single agricultural commodity
Koppen climate classification system
for classifying the world's climates on the basis of temperature and precipitation
areas with similar climatic characteristics
The "dry summer" climates are known as _____ climates.
Frigid winter climates merge into the _____ climates, where tundra and ice prevail.
When cash crops are grown on large estates, we use the term _________ to describe the production system.
A combination of suitable environment and available labor led the European colonial powers to establish huge plantations for the cultivation of _____ such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco.
the raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and by products such as leather and wool.
This kind of specialized farming occurs only in areas where the dry summer Mediterranean climate prevails.
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