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Ch 09 - Footings and Foundations
Terms in this set (51)
Chemicals added to concrete to change the characteristics of the mix.
Materials such as sand, rock, and gravel used to make concrete.
Bolt embedded in concrete to hold structural members in place.
Strap fastener that is embedded in concrete or masonry walls to hold sills in place.
The process of replacing soil around foundations after excavating.
A temporary framework of stakes and ledger boards used to locate corners and building lines when laying out a foundation.
A temporary wooden form installed within the forms for poured concrete walls. Its purpose is to provide an opening or void for later installation of features such as windows or doors.
The action by which moisture passes through fill.
Binding material that, when combined with water and aggregate, forms concrete.
Small metal fixture used to hold reinforcing bars away from the ground prior to the pouring of concrete slabs.
The last concrete block to be placed in any course.
concrete masonry units (CMUs)
Blocks made from a mixture of portland cement and aggregates such as sand, fine gravel, or crushed stone. They weigh 40 lb.-50 lb. Also known as concrete blocks.
A reference point for determining the elevation of footings, floors, and other parts of a building. Also, the highest elevation on the perimeter of an excavation. Also called high point.
Similar to a spread foundation used for a home with a basement, but less deep. The space between the ground and the floor joists is only a few feet.
Preventing loss of moisture in fresh concrete to strengthen it and reduce shrinkage, which also reduces cracking.
Metal strap connector used to bind intersecting concrete block walls together.
flat ICF wall
A solid concrete wall formed by sheets or planks of polystyrene rigid foam.
Smoothing the surface of wet concrete using a large flat tool (float).
Wood or plastic device that keeps concrete wall forms a uniform distance apart.
grade beam foundation
Similar to a spread foundation footing, but differs in that it is reinforced with rebar and rests on piling.
Slab foundation that is supported directly on top of the ground. Also called slab-on grade.
The end of the masonry block that butts against the previously laid block.
Concrete blocks that are dimensioned and shaped to form a shelf in a wall.
When moisture in the soil under the footing freezes, forcing the foundation wall upward.
Heat-producing chemical reaction that occurs between cement and water to form concrete.
Horizontal components of batter boards that support the lines set up to locate building lines and corners.
A horizontal structural member that supports the load over an opening, such as a door or window. Also called a header.
Reference line (cord) used to keep masonry units aligned as they are laid up.
Term used for concrete construction poured and cast in one unit without joints.
A combination of cement, sand, lime, and water used to bind masonry blocks.
Wooden strip cast into a concrete foundation around a window or door opening and used to attach the door or window frame.
permanent wood foundation (PWF)
A special building system that saves time because it can be installed in almost any weather.
A part of a wall that projects not more than one-half its own width beyond the outside or inside face of a wall. Chief purpose is to add strength, but may also be decorative.
piling and girder foundation
Foundation system usually found in warm climates where freezing of supply piping and drains is not a problem.
Footing that carries light loads and usually does not need reinforcing.
post-and-beam ICF wall
Poured wall contained by insulated concrete forms. Pour is shaped into vertical or horizontal concrete members more than 12″ apart O.C.
Steel reinforcing rod placed in concrete.
Footing containing steel rebar for added strength.
The process of leveling off concrete slabs or plastering on interior walls, using a screed.
screen-grid ICF wall
Poured concrete wall using insulated forms. Resulting wall forms a grid similar to a window screen.
A poured concrete foundation supported by the soil. When constructed in one continuous session, it is called a monolithic slab.
Slab foundation that is supported directly on top of the ground. Also called ground-supported slab.
A foundation system that transmits the load through the walls, pilasters, columns, or piers to a wide footing.
A footing that changes grade levels at intervals to accommodate a sloping site.
A straightedge, often made from a piece of lumber, marked up to check the height of each course of concrete block. Also used to lay out and transfer measurements for door and window openings, siding and shingle courses, and stairways.
structurally supported slab
Slab that can be used with other elements such as walls, piers, and footings.
Producing a dense, smooth surface on a concrete floor using a trowel (metal tool with a smooth finish).
The rate at which windows conduct heat energy. Also a measurement of the heat flow or heat transmission through materials.
waffle-grid ICF wall
Insulated concrete wall system that forms a grid similar to the appearance of a waffle.
A horizontal member used in concrete form construction to stiffen and support the walls of the form. Used to keep the form walls from bending outward under the pressure of poured concrete. Also called wale.
An intentional void left in a concrete wall to support a large timber or I-beam.
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