Social Psychology (Modules 74-80)
Terms in this set (55)
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting the situation or the person's disposition (Fritz Heider).
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing others' behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
Peripheral Route Persuasion
Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness. (Emotions)
Central Route Persuasion
Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. (Reason)
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. (I get you to do a very small request and then every time you say yes, you think you've done it before so you feel fine to do it again, very important for a cult as they aren't crazy, but lonely)
An initial request is rejected, only to be countered by another, smaller request that guilts into thinking that they owe something due to the denial of the initial request. (Norm of Reciprocity).
A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
The theory that we ace to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. (Some guy think it's not good to do cocaine or meth, but uses adderall, so his response would be that drugs aren't that bad for you)
Adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. (A change in behavior due to the real or imagine influence of other people) (CAN BE PEER PRESSURE)
Normative Social Influence
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. (I conform so I don't have the fear of missing out.)
Informational Social Influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality. (I don't trust my opinion, so I go with someone else's information because it's more "credible" than my own, it's an assumption)
Devised a simple conformity test. As a participant in a visual perception experiment, you arrive in time to take a seat at a table with five other people. After two trials with correct answers, the five other people all say the wrong answer and so you start to feel nervous and possibly conform.
Conducted an experiment based on obedience. You would be a "teacher" in an experiment and give the "student" an question. If it's answered wrong, you give them a shock and it gets worse later on. Even if you seem questionable, the supervisor explains to continue the experiment and it's your choice whether to obey or disobey. 65% of participants went all the way.
Improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. (People can also do worse during tough tasks when other people are around, it's a bit of both.)
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable. (I feel less responsible to do work if there's more people present.)
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. (Internet trolls saying things on the internet due to anonymity that they wouldn't say in person.)
The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group. (Beliefs and attitudes grow strong as we discuss them with like-minded others.) (Can feed extremism and suicide terrorism)
The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. (Nobody would disagree in order to keep peace in a conversation. Good example is Cuba Missile Crisis. Kennedy was ready to bomb USSR, but someone spoke up and Kennedy listened and was able to de-escalate the situation.)
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper behavior".
Conducted the Stanford Prison Experiment. The goal was to deindividualize the prisoners by removing clothing, putting a cap on their head, assigning a number to them, giving a generic gown, and a chain with a padlock on it. Experiment had to end early since it took people's identity's away and was inhumane.
An unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs , negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action. It's a three part mixture consisting of beliefs, emotions, and predispositions to action. (Negative attitude)
A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people. (Experience is needed to develop schemas)
Clark and Clark
Performed a "Baby Doll Study." There was a white doll and black doll, both having the same features, just different skin colors. White kids identified with the white dolls, black kids identified with black dolls. The white kids identified the nice doll as their doll, while the black kids identified the nice doll as the white doll, the exact opposite of white kids' results.
Conducted a race-orientated experiment. Participants were showed a video of a man, sometimes white and sometimes African-American, reaching for a cell phone, wallet, or gun. Participants had less than 1 sec to decide whether to shoot the man or not. Participants were both more likely to shoot an unarmed African-American man than an unarmed White Man, applied to all kinds of participants.
Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its member. (Negative behavior)
The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get. (Good things happen to good people, bad things happen to bad people) (Beliefs would change than behavior)
People with whom we share a common identity. (us)
Those preceived as different or apart from our ingroup. (them)
The tendency to favor our own group.
The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. (Holocaust is the most infamous example) (Also a type of prejudice)
Other-Race Effect (cross-race effect or own-race bias)
The tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races.
The reduction of prejudice comes about when contact is cooperative and the groups are seen as equals. (Students living in closer to gays and lesbians had fewer stereotypes and prejudices against them)
Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. (Can either be genetic (DNA), Neural (not specifically one part of the brain) (electrodes), or biochemical (hormonal changes))
The principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression. (If it's hot outside, you are more like to be hostile to others)
Culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations. (When we find ourselves in new situations)
Mere Exposure Effect
The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them. (If a person is more similar to ourselves, this effect can be dramatically more effective)
Reward Theory of Attraction
We will like those whose behavior is rewarding to us, and we will continue relationships that offer more rewards than costs.
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those whom our lives are intertwined. (Flood of passion-facilitating hormones subsides and another hormone, Oxycontin, support feelings of trust, calmness, and bonding with the mate)
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it. (Signifies that their chances for sustained and satisfying companionate love are good)
Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to another.
Unselfish regard for the welfare of others. (Think Kitty Genovese case, similar to Law and Order)
The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present (LAW AND ORDER) (If more people are present, people don't help due to Pluralistic Ignorance, Diffusion of Responsibility, and breaking the Social Norm)
Social Exchange Theory
The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. (Also known as utilitarianism)
An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them (like a favor or a solid, if someone is kind to you, you will treat them with the same kindness)
An expectation that people will help those needing their help. (A man collapsed near the subway train platform and fell on the tracks, another man made the split decision to leap from the platform, push the man off the tracks and into a foot-deep space between them and lay atop him, saved his life)
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest rather than the group, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. (Harm our well-being by pursuing our personal interests (cheating))
Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive. (We exaggerate us and the other person, thinking we're good and they're evil)
A belief that leads to its own fulfillment.
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation. (Muzafer Sherif had an experiment based on this, separated friends into two groups that competed with each other, but became closer friends after realizing they need each other to survive)
GRIT (Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction)
A strategy designed to decrease international tensions.