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Management 315 exam 2
Terms in this set (111)
What are the 4 subjects covered on this exam?
- Diversity, discrimination & legal issues
What are different types of commonly studied needs in OB?
Existence, relatedness, control, esteem, meaning
A set of energetic forces that originate both within and outside the individual and initiates work related effort
Why is motivation important?
What are the 3 types of motivation?
Why are we motivated or not?
- Are we receiving compensation?
- Are there consequences if we don't perform well?
- Is the task something we care about or something we enjoy?
- Are we focused on the short term or long term?
- Is there some kind of social pressure to perform?
- Do we feel challenged?
Motivation is often a problem of communication
Motivating them to change often requires
A vision of what the change will look like
A specific plan of how the change will occur
A clear explanation of what benefits and rewards are associated with the change
how you direct efforts
how intensely youll do it
continue regardless of obstacles
What is one of the primary responsibilities of a manager?
One of the primary responsibilities of a manager is to motivate employees
What are some ways that jobs can become motivating?
Motivating jobs can lessen the pressure of many HR functions
- Performance management
What are the two different types of motivation?
Money, promotions, manager
Are you emotional happy with your job?
What are the two types of theories of motivation?
- What motivates us?
- How are we motivated?
- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
- Herzberg's two-factor model
- McClelland's Acquired needs theory
- Oldham & Hackman's Job Characteristics theory
- Psychological Empowerment
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
- Basic level needs must be met before meeting higher level needs & reaching self actualization
- No real empirical support, but at least opened the door for other needs based theories
How does Maslow's hierarchy of needs pyramid look like?
Basic needs: Physiological needs (food, water, warmth, rest), Safety needs (security, safety)
Psychological needs: Belongingness and love needs (intimate relationships, friends) and esteem needs (prestige and feeling accomplishment)
Self actualization: (achieving ones full potential, including creative activities
Herzberg's Two-factor model
- Hygiene factors: if missing, will lead to dissatisfaction, but presence won't lead to satisfaction... (Pay, Safety)
- motivators: If present, will lead to satisfaction.... (Recognition, autonomy, challenging work)
McClellan's Acquired needs Theory
Oldham & Hackman's Job Characteristics Theory
Variety, significance, identity, autonomy, feedback
- The belief that one's work contributes to some larger purpose, thus providing intrinsic motivation
What are the different types of process theories?
- Equity Theory
- Expectancy Theory
- Self Efficacy
- Reinforcement theory
- Goal Setting Theory
We compare our outcome/input ratio to others
Outcomes (what we get may include)
- Better working conditions
Inputs (What we give) may include
- Job Performance/effort
- Training and Education
Equity Theory Continued
- Maintain the status quo
- Cognitive justification, work harder
- Demotivation, CWBs, withdrawal
Who is the comparison group?
- Effort will lead to performance (if i study hard for the exam, I'll know the material)
- Performance will lead to an outcome (if i know the material, I'll do well on the exam)
- The outcome is meaningful
(I want to do well on the exam, because I want a 4.0 in the class)
Expectancy can be hindered by:
- Low self-confidence (or efficacy)
- Lack of necessary KSAO's
- Lack of necessary training
- Lack of necessary resources
- Lack of supportive leadership
Instrumentality can be hindered by:
- Poor methods for measuring performance
- Inability to provide outcomes
- Use of policies that reward besides performance, such as attendance or seniority
- Time delays in doling out rewards
The belief that a person has the ability to complete a given task
- Task specific self esteem
- Past accomplishments
- Vicarious experience
- Verbal persuasion
- Emotional cues
Behavior is a function of consequence
Change behavior through positive reinforcement (give something good), Negative reinforcement (take away something bad), punishment (give something bad or take away something good)
- Reinforcement schedules & extinction?
Goal Setting Theory
Use goals to motivate
SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant (or results based), Timely
Salary by Degree type
- $1,156 weekly
- $28.90/hour @ 40 hours
- $60,112 annually
Types of compensation
Piece-Rate: reward for each unit produced/sold
In other words: positive reinforcement
Merit pay: better evaluations, higher raise
In practice: raises given to excellent vs. average performers do not differ much (maybe 2%)
In other words: hard work is not instrumental to getting higher pay raises
Profit sharing: if org makes profit, profit is split and paid out to employees
In practice: any one employee often cannot influence org-level profitability
In other words: employees don't view their job as instrumental to org profit
Gainsharing: if team/group meets goals, bonus is paid
Addresses main drawback of profit sharing, though a single employee may still not be able to affect team-level outcomes
Bonuses and awards
Flexible (can be given for meeting goals, an excellent day's work, etc.)
In other words, again: positive reinforcement.
- Product market competition (upper bound)
- Labor market competition (lower bound)
Matching pay to strategy & Revenues
Rate ranges & pay grades
Job vs. skill based pay?
How does this affect you? Staying motivated
- Consider you needs; what's important to you? (it is important for internal or external reasons?)
- Hygiene factors vs. motivating factors
- Set Challenging (but not unrealistic) & specific goals
- Try to avoid "exploding" goals
Motivation is on of the primary jobs of _____.
- Better performance
- Lower compensation cost
- Lower turnover
Motivation affects effort in 3 ways:
Some motivation notes
- Communicate with employees
- Try to understand what motivates them
- Don't assume everyone has the same goal
- Make sure they understand what you're trying to accomplish (why is the outcome important to them?)
- Provide guidance on how to accomplish the goal
- Change can be stressful
Key takeaways - motivation recitation
Motivating employees is a critical skill that every manager needs to develop in order to be effective
- Everyone is motivated by different things
- Communication is key to understanding these differences
Need to find the right balance between extrinsic and intrinsic motivators
Employees can be resistant to change and fear the unknown
- Motivating them to change often requires a vision of what the change will look like, a specific plan of how the change will occur, and a clear explanation of what benefits and rewards are associated with the change
(lose-lose; low concern for self and others' outcomes)
Withdraw from or suppress conflict
"I don't care which one we do;" "Things are fine, don't cause trouble"
Good for trivial issues that are not important for you or others; bad for difficult/worsening problems or something you or others care about
(lose-win; low concern for self but high concern for others' outcomes
Let others get their way
"Whatever you want"
Good for trivial issues that are not important to you; bad for something you care about
(medium concern for self and others' outcomes)
Give-and-take, each gives up something
"Meet me halfway"
Not always useful - some things can't be compromised (death penalty vs. life sentence)
(win-lose; high concern for self, low concern for others' outcomes)
Insist on getting your way
"My way or the highway;" "With us or against us"
Good when there is a clear right answer or need for speed; bad for relationships
(win-win; high concern for self and others' outcomes)
Useful (particularly for complex problems where win/win is possible) but time-consuming
Power from being an expert or knowing certain information (IT departments, office gossip)
Basically: popularity (charisma, respect, etc.)
Power coming from a role
CEO's can do things front-line workers can't; VP of HR can do things that VP of Finance can't, etc.
Note: those with legitimate power don't always have referent power (and vice-versa)
Power to hand out rewards
Power to hand out punishment
Contingencies of Power
Control over unique resources
Contingencies of Power
Important, well connected, interdependent role
Contingencies of Power
Ability to make decision free of restraint
Contingencies of Power
The individual and their control of resources is well known
A process in which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to come to an agreement about different preferences, with the aim of resolving seemingly divergent interest
Best Alternative To Negotiated Agreement (BATNA)
If I don't reach a settlement here, what other option do I have?
Remember: You negotiate to improve your situation; thus, you need to know what your situation (i.e., the alternative to a negotiated agreement) is.
A BATNA basically gives you a comparison point so that you don't settle for an agreement that is damaging to you.
80% of the work
What are we hoping to achieve?
What are we willing to settle for? (BATNA)
Each side presents a case: what you want and why you want it
The "negotiation" - select strategy, use tactics
Closing & Commitment
Are we clear on what we agree to?
Formalize the agreement
Win-lose situation (Zero-sum)
Fixed number of resources
Similar to competing type of
E.g. Buying a car
Distributive Negotiation Tactics
Yes, make the first offer
Avoid stating a range
Use diminishing concessions...
Use Cialdini's Six Principles
Principle of reciprocation: People repay debts
Use your moments of power - "You'd do the same for me"
Be first to give service, information, concessions
Appeal to their norms of fairness - but don't fall for the "even split" ploy yourself!
Principle of scarcity: People want more of what they can't have
Emphasize unique, exclusive, or scare features/information
Principle of Authority; est. your expertise
Present your (or other's) credentials
Admit weaknesses first
Use objective rationale to support your offers
Principle of consistency
More likely to say yes if consistent with past actions or statements (so gain public commitment)
Principle of consensus: People do what other people are doing
Demonstrate responses of many others (testimonials, implied, etc.)
Principle of liking: People say yes to those they know and like
Uncover similarities, areas to cooperate, ways to genuinely compliment others
Note: people don't like you if you lie to them, so if you use these principles dishonestly, it'll harm you
Similar to collaborative type of
E.g. Going on vacation
Integrative Negotiating Tactics
Focus on interests, not positions
Ask diagnostic questions about why they want something
Consider the issues
Does this negotiation contain multiple issues? Can other issues be brought in?
Does it make sense to bundle the issues, or consider separately?
Do the parties value the issues differently?
Avoid a fixed-pie perception
Try to build trust: be more willing to share information
Avoid compromise & yielding - integrative negotiating is tough, takes time
Problem solve: Seek the pareto-optimal solution
Pareto Optimal Solution
Answer to Integrative negotiation
Maximizes the value for both parties in such a way that the outcome couldn't get any better.
Leaving Money on the Table
Failing to reach an agreement that maximizes the shared potential value
Failing to maximize value when an offer is accepted without more thorough negotiation
Exiting a negotiation that could have provided more value than your BATNA
Agreeing to terms that are below your BATNA
Using "what may have been" as a reference point when evaluating the outcome
The degree to which members of a group differ from each other
Not an individual characteristic
Age, race, gender, etc.
Personality, values, beliefs, etc.
Knowledge, skills, abilities
Learned through interaction
Why have a diverse workforce?
Company image & reputation
Larger applicant pool
Broader array of information and experience
Increased team level creativity
Decreased conformity and groupthink
Proximity, Similarity, Closure
simplify the perception process and direct attention to particular things
p-The assumption that two or more things go together because they are positioned close to each other
s-The assumption that two or more things are alike because they share similar qualities
c-The tendency to fill in a complete picture with only limited information
A tendency to generalize about someone's behavior and ignore variation in behavior
Equal Employment Opportunity
The government's attempt to ensure all individuals have an equal chance for employment regardless of
Responsibilities of the EEOC
Investigate and resolve
Equal Pay Act 1963
Men and women performing equal work in the same organization must receive equal pay
Civil Rights Act 1964
Illegal to refuse to hire or discharge any individual, or otherwise discriminate against any individual with respect to compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
Age Discrimination in Employment Act 1967
Only applies to employees 40 and older
Firms cannot hire only younger workers, unless it is a business necessity without other valid alternatives
Firms cannot coerce employees into taking early retirement. If employees accept early retirement they sign an agreement waiving their right to sue under the ADEA
Pregnancy Discrimination Act 1978
Employers may not discriminate on the basis of pregnancy or pregnancy-related conditions
Americans / Disabilities Act 1990
Protects individuals with disabilities from being discriminated against
The disability must limit major life activities in order to be covered (i.e. mild allergies do not count)
Disability must not prevent "essential" job functions or safe performance (i.e., you do not have to hire a blind person to drive a truck)
Can reasonable accommodations be made?
You may ask...
Ever used another name?
Are you at least 18 years old?
Languages applicant reads, speaks, writes ***
Legally authorized to work in the US
Ever been convicted of a crime?
Can you perform essential functions of the job?
You may not ask...
What's your maiden name? What's your marital status?
Ages of your children?
Nationality, lineage, or national origin
Have you ever been arrested?
Which religious holidays will you need off?
Allows for consideration of group status in making employment decisions by providing opportunities to historically excluded groups
Candidates must be equally qualified; quotas are illegal
In other words, group status cannot be the only criteria
Can lead to charges of reverse discrimination
Fisher v Univ. of Texas (2016)
Quid Pro Quo: Sexual Harassment
A benefit or punishment is contingent upon employee submitting to sexual advances
Hostile Working Environment: Sexual Harassment
Behavior makes it difficult for someone of a particular sex to work
Suggestive remarks, pornographic pictures, explicit language, jokes and innuendoes
Intentionally differential treatment based on group membership
"I'm not going to hire you because you're too old."
When "facially neutral" employment practices unintentionally adversely affect different groups
"I only want to hire individuals with less than 2 years of work experience."
The "McDonnell Douglas Test"
Person belongs to a protected group
Person applied for and was qualified for the job
Person was rejected despite qualifications
Employer either kept seeking or hired someone with similar qualifications
Hired someone better
Show race, gender, etc. is a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
A qualification deemed necessary to complete essential job tasks safely and efficiently (often hard to prove)
If the selection of a protected class is less than 4/5 of the selection rate of the majority group, this can be used as evidence of discrimination
What are strategies for fostering goal commitment?
Rewards, publicity, support, participation, resources
Makes people sensitive to rewards and insensitive to punishment
Become focused on achieving things, and minimize possible obstacles or downsides
"Distance" themselves from subordinates
Less empathetic to subordinates, assume are different from subordinates, less influenced by subordinates
listens to each side and makes decision
Cialdinas 6 principles of persuasion
Diversity is not an individual characteristic
If I work harder and make a few extra units I wont see another dime
is an example of
Listens to both sides and suggests solution
a person's belief in his or her ability to succeed at the task at hand
"Range" occurring when reservation points of negotiating parties overlap
Two stages of negotiations
1. Distributive bargaining: win-lose situation,
fixed number of resources
2. Integrative bargaining: win-win situation,
Civil Rights & EEOC
-Civil Rights & EEOC (Reduce discrimination)
-Affirmative action (Redress discrimination)
--Preference given to equally qualified minorities
--Specialized training and developmental opportunities
--Rigid quotas not allowed
Influence tactics and their effectiveness
Types of power split up:
Responses to Influence Attempts (Most effective to least effective)
--Target agrees with and becomes committed to request (Behavioral and attitudinal changes)
--Target is willing to perform request, but does so with indifference (Behavioral change only)
--Target is opposed to request and attempts to avoid doing it (No change is behavior or attitude)
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