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Terms in this set (56)
What are the 3 crucial elements for the development cities?
Landscape of midieval or renaissance -baroque cities characteristics
Midieval: Most present-day cities founded during this period
-Narrow, winding streets
-3 or 4 story structures
-Little open space
-Marketplace: symbolized role of economic activities
Renaissance:More open & spacious
-Large, monumental structures
-Wide ceremonial boulevards
Has been well funded by the gov in europe. You really dont need a car in europe.
What is a greenbelt?
'collars of land' around urban areas where development is severely restricted to preserve the character of the environment
Location of public housing in european cities
Deprived neighborhoods located on the periphery
UK, France, Germany & Italy represent + ½ of Europe's pop.
what is responsible for the negative rate of natural increase in europe?
demographic transition in europe
The last stage. Death rates, outpacing births rate, declining total population.
The best way to encourage population growth in europe
-Urbanization and strong economic development
-Greater availability of contraception
-Higher education among women
-More women want professional careers and put off marriage
***Need to address problems faced by working mothers
What country did most guest workers come from?
what is the purpose of the schengen agreement?
agreement for free movement across common borders
the 3 branches of the indoeuropean language family most widely spoken in europe?
origin of romance languages
Where is celtic language spoken today?
Irish, breton, and gaelic
Non endo-european languages
language accomodation and stress which was successful
switzerland was more sucessful belgium wasnt
what led to chritisanity diffusion?Why did it spread so fast?
Christianity spread rapidly throughout nearly all of Europe
Roman Emperor Constantine converted & made it the religion of the empire (AD 313)
Division in 1054 A.D. of Roman Catholic & Eastern Orthodox Churches
Greek missionaries refused to accept rule by Roman bishops
Roman Catholics - Latin alphabet; Eastern Orthodox - Cyrillic
major factor dtermining the use of latin or cyrillic alphabet among slavic speaking countries
the domain religion of the people who speak that language
schisms in christianity
Orthodox (Eastern & Oriental), Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Protestantism, Restoration, Latter-Day Saint Movements, Adventists
what peninsula did the moors conquer in europe?
Western Europe: Moors brought Islam to Spain
East Europe: Ottoman Turks brought Islam to Balkans (almost to Vienna)
Why did jews cluster in muslim lands of the iberian peninsula around 900 ad?
Muslims in Iberia were more tolerant of Jews than were Christians
germany, sweden, norway, finland, uk, iceland
spain, france, ireland, italy, poland
which country is mainly muslim
Is religion important to keep in europe?
eligion in Europe has been a major influence on today's society, art, culture, philosophy and law. The largest religion in Europe is Christianity, but irreligion and practical secularization are strong.
who is the conflict of ireland between?
roman catholic and protestant
Size of Russia
area: world's largest, about 6,800 miles across, 11 time zones, 1/6 of world's land area
pop: abut 150 million people (6th)
geographical qualities of russia
Largest territorial state in the world
Northernmost Large & Populous Country in World
Few Good Ports
Former World Colonial Power
Comparatively Small & Concentrated Population
Populations are shrinking and life expectancy is decreasing
Not a manufacturer of Export Products
The region's economy is dependent on resource exports
Economic development has taken precedence over environmental concerns in this region
2. Ural Mountains
--West Siberian Plain
--Central Siberian Plateau
4. Pacific Mountain Zone:
--Russian North East
5. Southern flank has mountains and uplands:
Central Asian mountains
where is the eastern edge of Europe and the western edge of the Russian Domain approximately located?
The ural mountains
Siberia is very cold and high latitude, very important economically for?
fur trade, the mining of silver and other metals
which lake or sea recedes in russia
How useful are the rivers in siberia?
hydroelectric power, irrigate portions of asia
Main climate type of russia
continental. warm to hot dry summers and (very) cold winters with temperatures of -30°C and lower and sometimes heavy snowfall.
Definiton of permafroust
layer of permanently frozen soil beneath surface
treeless plain along Arctic shore where mosses, lichens, and some grasses survive
Characteristics of steppe
Three main types:
Increasingly plowed for crops in 20th century
Emphasized stock raising during Soviet period
They are often located between temperate forests and deserts, and annual precipitation falls between the amounts characteristic of those zones.
Characteristics of taiga
coniferous forest zone that lies south of the tundra zone
Also known as the boreal forest.short, wet summers and long, cold winters.
What country was the bread basket of the soviet union?
What is the primary reason of the shrinking of the aral sea?
Russia took over area and diverted the river.
What is the name of the group that invaded Russia in the 13th century?
in which city did the expansion of the russian empire begin?
what group helped speed up eastward expansion?
What is forward capital and what city?
capital city deliberately positioned near international border of a contested territory
window to the West
when did the territorial expansion take place?
Final expansion of Russian Empire in 19th Century
Main political architect of the soviet untion
union republics and autonomous areas
Union Republics: provided to major nationalities situated on one of Russia's external borders
Autonomous Areas: created inside Russia's boundaries
What is a command economy?
state control of production, distribution & consumption of goods
def of sovkhoz
literally a "grain-and-meat factory"
Resistance to collectivization
Estimated 50 to 100 million died during Stalin era
def of kolkhoz
smaller-scale collective farm
90% of farms collectivized by 1939
But still had to import food
~100 million acres of
land east of the Volga
River into new cultivation -private plots
What was the goal of the soviet industrial planners
Goal of Soviet system was to bind economic geog. of republics to the center & each other
what was the most successful economic sector in the soviet union?
portion of a country's territory that lies outside of its contiguous land area
: greater openness and political participation
program of economic reforms
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