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Chapter 10: Cardiovascular, Immune, Lymphatic Systems and Blood

Structures of the Cardiovascular System, Blood, Lymphatic System, (Combining form, Prefix/Suffix, Disease and Disorders)
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Heart
Muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist, located behind the sternum and between the lungs.
Circulates blood throughout the body.
Two upper chambers, the right and left atrium, and two lower chambers, the right and left ventricle.
Atrial septum
separates the atria
Ventricular septum
separates the ventricles
Atrioventricular valves
consists of the tricuspid and mitral valves
Semilunar valves
located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and between the left ventricle and the aorta.
Pericardium
Two-layer sac surrounding the heart, consisting of an external fibrous and an internal serous layer.
Serous layer
Secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart.
Three layers of the heart
epicardium
myocardium
endocardium
Epicardium
covers the heart
Myocardium
middle, thick, muscular layer
Endocardium
inner lining of the heart
Blood Vessels
tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body
Arteries
blood vessels that cary blood away form the heart
Pulmonary Artery
Carries carbon dioxide and other waste products from the heart to the lungs.
Arterioles
smallest arteries
Aorta
largest artery in the body
Veins
Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
Venules
smallest veins
Venae Cavae
largest veins in the body
Capillaries
Microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules.
Blood
Composed of plasma and formed elements, such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes.
Plasma
Clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended.
Erythrocytes
Red blood cells that carry oxygen (Develops in bone marrow)
Leukocytes
White blood cells that combat infection and respond to inflammation. (5 types)
Platelets (throbocytes)
One of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for aiding in the clotting process.
Serum
Clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that remains after a clot has formed.
Lymph
Transparent, colorless, tissue fluid that, on entering the lymphatic system.
Lymphocytes and monocytes
Flow in a one-way direction to the heart.
Lymphatic vessels
Similar to veins.
Transport lymph from body tissues to the chest, where it enters the cardiovascular system. Provide a one-way flow for lymph where lymph enters through veins into the circulatory system.
Lymph nodes
Small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue.
Filter lymph to keep substances such as bacteria and other foreign agents from entering the blood.
Produce lymphocytes
Spleen
located in the left side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and the diaphragm.
Thymus gland
One of the primary lymphatic organs, located anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the sternum between the lungs.
Splen/o
spleen
thym/o
thymus gland
valv/o, valvul/o
valve
ventricul/o
ventricle
ather/o
yellowish, fatty plaque
ech/o
sound
electr/o
electricity, electrical activity
isch/o
deficiency, blockage
therm/o
heat
thromb/o
clot
brady-
slow
-ac
pertaining to
-apheresis
removal
-graph
instrument used to record; record
-penia
abnormal reduction in number
-poiesis
formation
-sclerosis
hardening
angioma
tumor composed of blood vessels
angiostenosis
narrowing of a blood vessel
aortic stenosis
narrowing, pertaining to aorta (narrowing of the aortic valve)
arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries.
atherosclerosis
hardening of fatty plaque (deposited on the arterial wall)
bradycardia
condition of a slow heart (rate less than 60 beats per minute)
cardiomegaly
enlargement of the heart
cardiomyopathy
disease of the heart muscle
endocarditis
inflammation of the inner (lining) of the heart (particularly heart valves) deficiency of blood (flow)
ischemia
deficiency of blood (flow)
myocarditis
inflammation of the muscle of the heart.
pericarditis
inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart
phlebitis
inflammation of a vein
polyarteritis
inflammation of many arteries.
tachycardia
condition of a rapid heart (rate of more than 100 beats per minute)
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of a vein associated with a clot
valvulitis
inflammation of a valve (of the heart)
hematoma
tumor of blood (collection of blood resulting from a broken blod vessel)
multiple myeloma
tumors of the bone marrow
pancytopenia
abnormal reduction of all (blood) cells
thrombosis
abnormal condition of a (blood) clot
thrombus
(blood) clot (attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein)
lymphadenitis
inflammation of the lymph nodes
lymphadenopathy
disease of the lymph nodes (characterized by abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes associated with an infection or malignancy)
lymphoma
tumor of lymphatic tissue (malignant)
splenomegaly
enlargement of the spleen
thymoma
tumor of the thymus gland
acute coronary syndrome (ACS)
sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction
aneurysm
ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall
angina pectoris
chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle.
arrhythmia
any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern
atrial fibrillation (AFib)
a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in the atria. The atria quiver instead of contracting, causing irregular ventricular response and the ejection of a reduced amount of blood.
cardiac arrest
sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
cardiac tamponade
acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity
coarctation of the aorta
congenital cardiac condition characterized by a narrowing of the aorta.
congenital heart disease
heart abnormality present at birth
congestive heart failure (CHF)
inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen
coronary artery disease (CAD)
a condition that reduces the flow of blood thought the coronary arteries to the myocardium, denying the myocardial tissue of sufficient oxygen and nutrients to function fully; most often caused by coronary atherosclerosis.
coronary occulsion
obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from atherosclerosis. Coronary occlusion can lead to acute myocardial infarction.
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
condition of thrombus in a deep ein of the body. Most often occurs in the lower extremities.
hypertensive heart disease (HHD)
disorder of the heart caused by persistent high blood pressure.
intermittent claudication
pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in peripheral arterial disease.
mitral valve stenosis
a narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever
myocardial infraction (MI)
death (necrosis) of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (heart attack)
peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
disease of the arteries in the arm and legs, resulting in narrowing or complete obstruction of the artery.
rheumatic heart disease
damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever
varicose veins
distended or tortuous veins usually found in the lower extremities
anemia
reduction in the number of red blood cells.
Caused by blood loss or decrease in the production or increase in the destruction of red blood cells.
embolus
blood clot or foreign material, such as air or fat, that enters the bloodstream and moves until it lodges at another point in the circulation.
hemophilia
inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII
leukemia
malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow
sepsis
a condition in which pathogenic microorganisms, usually bacteria, enter the bloodstream, causing a systemic inflammatory response to the infection
Hodgkin disease
malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually beginning in the cervical nodes
infectious mononucleosis
an acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, and fever. The disease affects mostly young people and is usually transmitted by saliva