The exchange of goods and people from the Old and New World due to settlers and explorers discovering the New World in 1942. Products such as corn, tomatoes, potatoes, peanuts, tobacco and cotton were brought from America to Europe. Wheat, rice, sugar cane, horses, cattle, pigs and sheep were brought to the New World from Europe, along with all kinds of germs and diseases unknown to the native populations. Also known as the Society of Friends, the Quakers were a religious group who were persecuted in England. Therefore, many Quakers settled in the New World most in the colony of Pennsylvania. Quakers were pacifists and were not armed. They helped the local Indians and upheld a strict moral code. No swearing, drunkenness, adultery, cock-fighting, etc. were allowed in public. Equality among all people: women, blacks, and Indians was very important for Quakers. Women held a prominent role in Quaker gatherings and life and Indians were treated well. The Quakers were significant in the New World because they upheld a much stricter moral code than other colonists and believed in equality, even for blacks, which became important when slavery was introduced in the colonies, as the Quakers rejected slavery. A conflict on March 5, 1770 between a snow-ball throwing crowd of Bostonians and British troops. It led to an armed confrontation, in which five Bostonians were killed. The British troops were sent to the colonies to enforce the Townshend duties, which were becoming increasingly unpopular. One of the men killed, Crispus Attucks, was of Indian-African-white ancestry and is considered the firsty "martyr" of the American Revolution. The British officer and eight soldiers involved were put on trial and seven were found not guilty, while two were found guilty of manslaughter. Paul Revere, a member of Sons of Liberty, helped popularize the event by producing a historically inaccurate print of the Boston Massacre. The event was much more disorganized than it appears in the print. The Boston Massacre was significant because it showed the frustration and feelings of injustice of the colonists toward Britain and especially toward the Townshend duties. Merchants lost a lot of revenue due to the boycotts of imported goods and many were pleased when the Townshend duties were to be repealed. The British agreed to repeal the duties and remove troops from the colonies, leaving only a tax on tea in exchange. For the time being, that seemed to satisfy the merchants, but eventually the tax on tea gives rise to the American Revolution. refers to: abolishing, eliminating, emancipating, and the freeing of slaves during the American Revolution. Almost every founding father owned slaves even though it went against the idea of liberty for all. In the North, legislative power was used to end slavery between the years of 1777 and 1804 in all states north of Maryland. Abolition laws usually did not grand freedom outright to slaves. The emancipation act of 1780 in Pennsylvania granted freedom to children born to slave mothers after they worked so many years, say 28 years, for their mothers' master as compensation. Essentially, blacks were being used in a form of indentured servitude, but with a longer term of indenture in exchange for freedom. Some, very few, slave owners chose to voluntarily free their slaves. Nonetheless, the number of slaves increased according to a census from 1790. The abolition of slavery was very significant even though it did not completely end slavery when first enacted, it forced whites to accept that blacks were people just like whites who could not be enslaved, could be intelligent, and that the ideas of the American Revolution of liberty etc applied to them too. An American political party formed around 1854 that was comprised of nativists (hostility towards immigrants, Catholics in particular). In the North, the party combined anti-immigrant, mainly anti-Irish & Catholic sentiments, with anti-slavery as the main values of the party. The political party tried to oppose the sale of liquor because part of the nativist belief was that the Irish drank too much. The political party started out as a secret organization, whose members replied, "I don't know" when asked about the organization from which the name of the political party came. The Know-Nothing party was successful in state elections in 1854 in Massachusetts and was able to get mayor's office in Philadelphia, SF, and Chicago. The Know-Nothing party was significant because it demonstrated the strong unity of American-born people, nativists, against immigrants, especially in the North because most immigrants came to the North for jobs. The formation of such a political party also revealed that so called "native" Americans felt threatened by immigrants and feared competition for jobs and land. the presidential elections of 1860 were very sectionalist with the North and South essentially having two separate campaigns. In the North, Lincoln & Douglas were candidates, while in the South there were three candidates: Douglas, Breckenridge, and John Bell. Lincoln was favored in the North, while Breckenridge was favored in the South. Douglas was the only candidate with substantial support in both the South and North. Belle carried three states in the Upper South. Lincoln was elected President without any southern votes, which deeply upset the South. He did not win the majority of the national popular vote, but because of the North's population he would have won from the Electoral College. The election of 1860 was significant because there was a power shift, a Republican, Lincoln, was in power and the election showed the great extent to which the nation was divided, North and South, on the issue of slavery. the first major battle of the Civil war, known as the Battle of Bull Run, took place in Northern Virginia (Confederate land) on July 21, 1861. Union soldiers retreated as well as the spectators and politicians. It was a very deadly battle with almost 800 men dead, the most dead than any previous battle, although the figure gets eclipsed in the years after. After the battle, George B. McClellan, an army engineer with the Confederate troops, switches sides and commanded the Union's Army of the Potomac. After assuming command he failed to take military action with the Union army. The Battle of Bull Run made both sides, Union and Confederate, realize that the war would not be a glorious, short battle and that many men would die in battle. issued by President Lincoln on January 1, 1863 the Emancipation Proclamation freed some, but not all slaves. It was based on a President's authority as military commander in chief. It exempted slaves in areas that were under Union control (ie where the war was over) and didn't apply to border states. However, many of the South's slaves, over 3 million, were freed by the decree, but they had to wait until the Union defeated the Confederacy because they were on Confederate land. The Emancipation Proclamation marked Union victory in the American Civil war because it aimed to destroy the institution of slavery in the South. Even though not all slaves were freed immediately, the proclamation allowed blacks to join the Union army, finally fight, and be somewhat more equal to whites, even though there was still discrimination against blacks. the eleven southern states that seceded from the Union in 1861. They established a separate federal government and elected Jefferson Davis as President. The Confederacy became more centralized than the Old South under Davis' administration. President Davis also tried to stop cotton production, which economically hurt the Confederacy. The Confederacy was in some ways more divided than the Union because non-slaveholders, yeoman farmers, began to resent fighting in a war that did not benefit them. Slaveholders obviously had a stake in the war so they cared about fighting in the war, but the division between them and the yeoman was too great for the Confederacy to be united in the cause of war. The blockade also started to work, leaving the Confederacy starving, with food riots breaking out. When the Union army, with Ulysses S. Grant met Lee's arm in Virginia, in 1864, the Confederacy was on the brink of collapsing because they incurred much greater losses than the Union army. The creation of the Confederacy was significant because it showed the importance of preserving the institution of slavery in the South. However, its eventual collapse was due to division within the people of the Confederacy, proving that everyone did not support slavery.