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Chapter 18 Study Guide
Terms in this set (69)
a policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, and military control
what were the four reasons for imperialism?
desire for military strength
thirst for new markets
explain manifest destiny
once we were done with the US, we looked overseas for new frontiers
explain the desire for military strength
admiral alfred mahan of the U.S. navy urged government officials to build up American naval power in order to compete with other powerful nations
"great white fleet"
nickname for the steel US army ships that were painted white
explain thirst for new markets
US farms and factories are producing more and need new places to sell goods; if the US needed raw materials, they could take them
explain cultural superiority
social darwinism; US believed they had to spread the ideas of Christianity around the world; natives of other countries were exploited and treated to immigrants in the US even though we were on their soil
secretary of state under lincoln and johnson; arranged for the US to buy Alaska from the russians for $7.2 million; had trouble persuading the house to approve funding for the purchase;
"seward's icebox" or "seward's folly"
people thought it was silly to buy Alaska
when did Alaska become a state?
why was buying Alaska good?
the land was rich in timer, minerals, and oil
lie in pacific ocean about 1300 miles north of hawaii, no one lived on the islands so it didn't attract much attention
when did the US take the midway islands?
the same year Alaska was purchased
why were the hawaiian islands economically important to the US for a century?
american merchants stopped there on the way to china and east india
what did yankee missionaries found on the island?
christian schools and churches
what did children and grandchildren become?
sugar planters who sold most of their crop to the US
what was 3/4 of the hawaiian islands wealth?
american-owned sugar plantations
who worked on the plantations in hawaii?
japan, portugal, and china; the laborers outnumbered natives three to one
what did the US agree to do in 1875?
import hawaiian sugar duty-free
mckinley tariff act of 1890
provoked a crisis by eliminating the duty-free status of hawaiian sugar
what did the US build in hawaii?
a naval base (pearl harbor)
became refueling station for american ships
why did american planters in hawaii want the US to annex the island?
so they didn't have to pay the duty
white business leaders forced him to amend hawaii's constitution which limited voting rights only to wealthy landowners
when her brother died, she proposed the "hawaii for hawaiians" agenda; proposed removing property-owning qualifications for voting;
john l. stevens
US ambassador to hawaii, help encouraged a revolution to overthrow they queen
stanford b. dole
took over as president of Hawaii after queen was overthrown; refused to give queen back her power after cleveland asked for it
when did cleveland recognize the republic of hawaii?
when dole refused to surrender his power
what happened on august 12, 1898?
congress proclaimed hawaii an american territory even though hawaiians didn't have the chance to vote
when did hawaii become the 50th state?
1898, US goes to war to help cuba win its independence from Spain
american interest in cuba
economic (sugar), military (control access to caribbean), humanitarian
journalist, launches second revolution in 1895
destroys american-owned sugar mills in an effort to get the US to fight Spain
who did businesses support?
general valeriano weyler
spanish general who was sent to cuba to restore order, put about 300,000 cubans in concentration camps, known as "the butcher"
sensational writing used to lure, enrage readers
the de lome letter
spanish ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. mail and published by American newspapers; it criticized President McKinley in insulting terms; american public was angry
ship that explodes in havana harbor, everyone on it was killed, newspapers blamed spain for it
war in the philippines
first battle with spain, george dewey destroyed spanish fleet in manila harbor, filipinos (led by Emilio Aguinaldo) support dewey, spanish troops in manila surrender to US in august 1892
war in the caribbean
US blockades cuba and spanish fleet in santiago de cuba harbor
volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by leonard wood and teddy roosevelt
battle of san juan hill
roosevelt and rough riders defeats spain, spanish fleet is destroyed in naval battle, puerto rico is invaded after
treaty of paris 1898
spain, US sign armistice in august; spain frees cuba; gives guam, puerto rico to the US; sells philippines
debate over the treaty of paris
mckinley tries to justify annexation of philippines moral grounds; opponents give political, moral, and economic arguments against it
ended military rule and set up a civil government; the president of the US could appoint a governor and the members of its upper house
cuba could not make treaties that might limit its independence or permit a foreign country to control them, US could intervene in Cuba whenever it wanted, Cuba could not go into debt, US could buy land for naval stations
effects of the platt amendment
US would not remove troops until the amendment was signed, ratified and became cuban policy for 31 years, cuba became protectorate
country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power
why were the filipinos mad at the US?
the US purchased their country and annexed them
lead a revolution against spain, tried to lead a revolution against the americans but failed
what did america do to the filipinos?
placed them in concentration camps where over 200,000 people died of disease and starvation
armed conflict between the Philippines and the United States from 1899-1902, some american soldiers felt sympathetic and switched sides, 20,000 rebels died, 4,000 americans died, cose $400 million (20 times the cost for the US to buy the Philippines)
china was an untapped market for investors in the US and around the world to look to, americans look to build railroads in China; other countries like Britain, Germany, Japan, and Russia already settled along the coast of China
open door notes
message sent by secretary of state John Hay in 1899 to imperialist nations proposing that the nations share their trading rights with the US, other nations accepted this
us secretary of state
people who wanted to get rid of foreign rule, killed hundreds of missionaries and merchants from the west
fight to stop the boxers
german, french, british, japanese, and US forces marched on chinese capital; rebellion died and thousands of chinese were killed
open door policy
US would safeguard all equal and impartial trade with China
what three things did the open door policy say about the US?
US economy depended on exports, US had the right to intervene abroad to keep foreign markets open, feared that closing an are to american products, citizens, or ideas threatened american survival
what were the two possible locations to build the panama canal?
nicaragua: large lake would reduce the amount of work needed, panama: shorter trip, but there were more mountains and valleys
who started the canal?
a french company started to dig a canal in panama but stopped after 10 years
how much did the US purchase the canal for?
revolution in panama
US had to negotiate with columbia for rights to build the canal, when negotiations broke down, a panamanian revolution took place with 12 american war ships along the coast of columbia, panama declared their independence and US had rights to the canal
construction of the panama canal
bean in 1904, 5600 workers died from disease or accidents
addition to the monroe doctrine, US would use force to protect its interest in latin america
last invasion of the US
during the mexican revolution, a mexican rebel named francisco "pancho" villa raided to the town of columbus, new mexico, killing 17 people, woodrow wilson responds by sending 15,000 soldiers into mexico to look for villa but, could not find him, tensions on american and mexican sides rose until US forces pulled out of mexico a year later
yellow journalism rivalry
pulitzer vs. hearst
"if you furnish the pictures, I'll furnish the war"
quote by hearst, about yellow journalism
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