19 terms

Bio Study Guide Chapt. 9

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Cell Cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.
Chromatin
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
Chromosome
condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell prepares to divide
Cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Interphase
cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
Mitosis
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
Anaphase
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
Centromere
the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
Metaphase
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
Sister Chromatid
one of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell
Spindle Apparatus
structure made of spindle fibers, centrioles, and aster fibers that is involved in moving and organizing chromosomes before the cell divides
Telophase
the final stage of meiosis or mitosis, in which the separated chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the dividing cell and the nuclei of the daughter cells form around the two sets of chromosomes
Apoptosis
programmed cell death
Cancer
a disease in which abnormal cells multiply out of control, spread into surrounding tissues and other body parts, and disrupt normal functioning of one or more organs
Carcinogen
a substance that causes cancer
Cyclin
one of the specific proteins that regulate the cell cycle
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase
enzyme that binds with cyclins to start activities in the cell cycle during interphase and mitosis
Stem Cell
unspecialized cell that can develop into a specialized cell under the right conditions