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Terms in this set (61)
1. What are the four processes of respiration?
Ventilation: Movement of air into and out
External respiration: Gas exchange between air in lungs and blood
Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in
Internal respiration: Gas exchange between the blood and tissues
2. Explain the functions of the respiratory system.
Regulation of blood pH: Altered by
changing blood carbon dioxide levels
Production of chemical mediators:ACE
Voice production: Movement of air past
vocal folds makes sound and speech
Olfaction: Smell occurs when airborne
molecules are drawn into nasal cavity
Protection: Against microorganisms by
preventing entry and removing them from
Name the parts of the upper and lower respiratory tracts.
Upper tract: nose, pharynx and associated structures
Lower tract: larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
and the tubing within the lungs
Explain how the conducting zone differs from the respiratory zone.
Conducting zone: gases are simply moved from the external environment to area where they only interact with blood. Respiratory zone: gas exchange btw inspired air and blood
Describe the structures of the nasal cavity.
From nares to choanae
Vestibule: just inside nares
Hard palate: floor of nasal cavity
Nasal septum: partition dividing cavity. Anterior cartilage; posterior vomer and
perpendicular plate of ethmoid
Choanae: bony ridges on lateral walls with
meatusesbetween. Openings to paranasal sinuses and to nasolacrimal duct.
Functions:increases turbulence and surface area for cleaning, warming and
moisturizing the air
What are the five functions of the nasal cavity?
Passageway for air, Cleans the air, Humidifies warms air, Smell, Along with paranasal sinuses are resonating chambers for speech
**pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Name the three regions of the pharynx. With what other structures does each part communicate?
Nasopharynx: pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells. Mucous and debris is swallowed. Openings of Eustachian (auditory) tubes. Floor is soft palate, uvula is posterior extension of the soft palate.
Oropharynx: shared with digestive system. Lined with moist stratified squamous epithelium.
Laryngopharynx: epiglottis to esophagus. Lined with moist stratified squamous epithelium
Name and describe the three unpaired cartilages of the larynx.
Thyroid: largest, Adam's apple
Cricoid: most inferior, base of larynx
Epiglottis: attached to thyroid and has a flap near base of tongue. Elastic rather than hyaline cartilage.
Distinguish between the vestibular and vocal folds. How are sounds of different loudness and pitch produced by the vocal folds?
What are the four functions of the larynx?
Maintain an open passageway for air movement: thyroid and cricoid cartilages
Epiglottis and vestibular folds prevent swallowed material from moving into larynx
Vocal folds are primary source of sound production. Greater the amplitude of vibration, louder the sound. Frequency of vibration determines pitch. Arytenoid
cartilages and skeletal muscles determine length of vocal folds and also abduct the folds when not speaking to pull them out of the way making glottis larger.
he pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium traps debris, preventing their entry into the lower respiratory tract.
Explain the branching of the tracheobronchial tree.
Trachea divides into two primary bronchi.
Primary bronchi divide into secondary bronchi(one/lobe) which then divide into
Bronchopulmonary segments: defined by tertiary bronchi.
Tertiary bronchi further subdivide into smaller and smaller bronchithen into
bronchioles(less than 1 mm in diameter), then finally into terminal bronchioles.
Cartilage: holds tube system open;
smooth muscle controls tube diameter.
As tubes become smaller, amount of cartilage decreases, amount of smooth muscle increases
What is a respiratory zone of the tracheobronchial tree?
Site for gas exchange.
13. Know the structures of the tracheobronchial tree and respiratory zone in the order air passes through them during inhalation
14. How is debris removed from the tracheobronchial tree?
Trachea to terminal bronchioles which
is ciliated for removal of debris.
Name the three types of cells in the alveolar wall, and state their functions.
Type I pneumocytes. Thin squamous epithelial cells, form 90% of surface of
alveolus. Gas exchange.
Type II pneumocytes. Round to cube- shaped secretory cells. Produce surfactant.
16. List the layers of the respiratory membrane.
Thin layer of fluid lining the alveolus
Alveolar epithelium (simple squamous
Basement membrane of the alveolar
Thin interstitial space
Basement membrane of the capillary
Capillary endothelium composed of
simple squamous epithelium
Distinguish among a lung, a lung lobe, a bronchopulmonary segment, and a lobule.
Lungs: organs of respiration. Lung Lobe: prominant fissures> Bronchopulmonary segment: lobes are divided Lobule: subdivision of bronchopulmonary segment
18. How many lobes are in the right lung and in the left lung? Why is there a difference in the number of lobes?
Right Lung-three lobes separated by fissures.
Left Lung-two lobes, cardiac notch
List the muscles of inspiration, and describe their role in quiet inspiration. List the muscles of expiration, and describe their role in quiet expiration. How does this change during labored breathing?
Inspiration: diaphragm, external intercostals, pectoralis minor, scalenes. Quiet inspiration: accounts for 2/3 of increase in size of thoracic volume. Inferior movement of central tendon and flattening of dome. Abdominal muscles relax
Other muscles: elevate ribs and costal cartilages allow lateral rib
Expiration: muscles that depress the ribs and sternum: abdominal muscles and internal intercostals.
Quiet expiration: relaxation of diaphragm and external intercostals with contraction of abdominal muscles.
Labored breathing: all inspiratory muscles are active and contract more forcefully. Expiration is rapid.
20. Name the pleurae of the lungs. What is their function?
Pleural cavitysurrounds each lung and is formed by the pleural membranes.
Filled with pleural fluid.
Visceral pleura: adherent to lung. Simple squamous epithelium, serous.
Parietal pleura: adherent to internal thoracic wall.
What are the two major routes of blood flow to and from the lungs? What is the function of each route?
1. Pulmonary artery
brings deoxygenated blood to lungs from right side of heart to be oxygenated in capillary beds that surround the alveoli.
Blood leaves via the pulmonary veins
and returns to the left side of the heart.
2. Oxygenated blood travels to the
tissues of the bronchi through Bronchial arteries (branches of thoracic aorta)
to capillaries. Part of this now deoxygenated blood exits through the bronchial veins to the azygous; part merges with blood of alveolar capillaries and returns to left side of heart.
Describe the lymphatic supply of the lungs.
Two lymphatic supplies: superficial and deep lymphatic vessels. Exit from hilus.
Superficial drain superficial lung tissue and visceral pleura
Deep drain bronchi and associated C.T.
No lymphatics drain alveoli
23. What is ventilation?
Movement of air into and out of lungs.
24. How do pressure differences and resistance affect airflow through a tube?
As volume increases, pressure decreases.
What happens to the pressure within a container when the volume of the container increases? Whose law describes this relationship?
As volume increases, pressure decreases. Boyle's Law.
What is lung recoil, and what two factors cause it?
Lung recoil causes alveoli to collapse resulting from:
Elastic recoil: elastic fibers in the alveolar walls
Surface tension of water: film of fluid lines the alveoli. Where water interfaces with air, polar water molecules have great attraction for each other with a net
pull in toward other water molecules. Tends to make alveoli collapse.
How does surfactant reduce lung recoil? What happens if the alveoli have insufficient surfactant?
Surfactant: Reduces tendency of lungs to collapse by reducing surface tension. Produced by type II pneumocytes.
Respiratory distress syndrome
(hyaline membrane disease).
28. What is pleural pressure? What happens to alveolar volume when pleural pressure decreases? What causes pleural pressure to be lower than intra-alveolar pressure?
What is pneumothorax?
Pneumothorax is air in the pleural cavity -> causes a loss of pleural pressure -> lungs collapse
30. What is compliance? Which conditions decrease compliance?
Measure of the ease with which lungs and thorax expand.
Conditions that decrease compliance:
Pulmonary fibrosis: deposition of inelastic fibers in lung (emphysema)
Respiratory distress syndrome
Increased resistance to airflow caused by airway obstruction (asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer)
Deformities of the thoracic wall (kyphosis, scoliosis)
31. Distinguish among tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume.
Tidal volume: amount of air inspired or expired with each breath. At rest: 500 mL
Inspiratory reserve volume: amount that can be inspired forcefully after inspiration of the tidal volume (3000 mL at rest)
Expiratory reserve volume: amount that can be forcefully expired after expiration of the tidal volume (100 mL at rest)
Residual volume: volume still remaining in
respiratory passages and lungs after most forceful expiration (1200 mL)
32. Differentiate among inspiratory capacity, functional residual capacity, vital capacity, and total lung capacity.
The sum of two or more pulmonary volumes
Inspiratory capacity: tidal volume plus
inspiratory reserve volume
Functional residual capacity: expiratory reserve volume plus residual volume
Vital capacity: sum of inspiratory reserve
volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume
Total lung capacity: sum of inspiratory and
expiratory reserve volumes plus tidal volume and residual volume.
What is the difference between minute ventilation and alveolar ventilation?
Minute ventilation: total air moved into and out of respiratory system each minute; tidal volume X respiratory rate.
Alveolar ventilation(VA): volume of air available for gas exchange/minute.
What is dead space? Contrast anatomical dead space with physiological dead space.
Anatomic dead space: formed by nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles
Physiological dead space: anatomic dead space plus the volume of any alveoli in which gas exchange is less than normal.
35. According to Dalton's law, what is the partial pressure? What is water vapor pressure?
Dalton's law:total pressure is the sum of the individual pressures of each gas.
Partial pressure:pressure exerted by each type of gas in a mixture.
Water vapor pressure: pressure
exerted by gaseous water in a
mixture of gases
36. Why are the compositions of inspired, alveolar, and expired air different?
Describe the four factors that affect the diffusion of gases through the respiratory membrane. Give examples of diseases that decrease diffusion by altering these factors.
Membrane thickness. The thicker, the lower the diffusion rate
Diffusion coefficient of gas (measure of how easily a gas diffuses through a liquid or tissue). CO2 is 20 times more diffusible than O2, surface areas of membrane, partial pressure of gases in alveoli and
Surface area. Diseases like emphysema and lung cancer reduce available surface area
Partial pressure differences. Gas moves from area of higher partial pressure to area of lower partial pressure. Normally, partial pressure of oxygen is higher in alveoli than in blood. Opposite is usually true for carbon dioxide
Does oxygen or carbon dioxide diffuse more easily through the respiratory membrane?
What are the physiological shunt?
Physiologic shunt is deoxygenated blood returning from lungs.
Blood returning from bronchi bronchioles
Blood from capillaries around alveoli
40. Read Paragraph 23.6 Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood
41. Describe the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli, lung capillaries, tissue capillaries, and tissues.
42. How do these pressures account for the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide between air and blood, and between blood and tissues?
Oxygen: Moves from alveoli into blood. Blood is almost completely saturated with oxygen when it leaves the capillary PO2 in blood decreases because of mixing with deoxygenated blood
Oxygen moves from tissue capillaries into the tissues
Carbon dioxide: Moves from tissues
into tissue capillaries
Moves from pulmonary capillaries
into the alveoli
43. Name the two ways oxygen is transported in the blood, and state the percentage of total oxygen transport for which each method is responsible.
• Oxygen is transported by hemoglobin (98.5%) and is dissolved in plasma (1.5%)
•Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve:
describes the percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen at
any given PO2
• Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve at rest shows that hemoglobin is almost
completely saturated when
PO2 is 80 mm Hg or above.
• At lower partial pressures, the hemoglobin releases oxygen.
44. How does the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve explain the uptake of oxygen in the lungs and the release of oxygen in tissues?
What is the Bohr effect?
Effect of pH on oxygen-hemoglobin
dissociation curve: as pH of blood declines, amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin at any given PO2 also declines
• Occurs because decreased pH yields
increase in H+ that combines with
hemoglobin changing its shape and oxygen cannot bind to hemoglobin
How does temperature affect oxygen's tendency to bind to hemoglobin?
Increase temperature: decreases tendency for oxygen to remain bound to hemoglobin, so as metabolism goes up, more oxygen is released to the tissues.
How does BPG affect the release of oxygen from hemoglobin?
2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (BPG): released
by RBCs as they break down glucose for
• Binds to hemoglobin and increases release of oxygen
How does carbon monoxide affect red blood cells (RBCs)?
What is the chloride shift, and what does it accomplish?
Tissue capillaries: as CO2
enters red blood cells, reacts with water
to form bicarbonate and hydrogen ions. Chloride ions enter the RBC and bicarbonate ions leave: chloride shift. Hydrogen ions combine with hemoglobin. Lowering the concentration of bicarbonate and hydrogen ions inside red blood cells promotes the conversion of CO2
to bicarbonate ion.
What effect does blood carbon dioxide level have on blood pH?
Increased plasma carbon dioxide lowers blood pH. The respiratory system regulates blood pH by regulating plasma carbon dioxide levels.
51. Name the three respiratory groups, and describe their main functions.
52. How is rhythmic ventilation generated?
Starting inspiration: Medullary respiratory center neurons are continuously active
Center receives stimulation from receptors and simulation from parts of brain concerned with voluntary respiratory movements and emotion. Combined input from all sources causes action potentials to stimulate respiratory muscles
Increasing inspiration: More and more neurons are activated
Stopping inspiration: Neurons stimulating also responsible for stopping inspiration and receive input from pontine group and stretch receptors in lungs. Inhibitory neurons activated and relaxation of respiratory muscles results in expiration.
What is apnea?
Apnea. Cessation of breathing. Can be conscious decision, but eventually PCO2
levels increase to point that respiratory center overrides
Where are central chemoreceptors and peripheral chemoreceptors? Which are most important for regulating blood pH and carbon dioxide level? How does this change during intense exercise?
Central chemoreceptors: chemosensitive area of the medulla oblongata; connected to respiratory center
Peripheral chemoreceptors: carotid and
aortic bodies. Connected to respiratory center by cranial nerves IX and X
Chemosensitive area in medulla oblongata is more important for regulation of PCO2 and pH
• Carotid bodies respond rapidly to changes in blood pH because of exercise
Define hypercapnia and hypocapnia.
Hypercapnia: too much CO2
Hypocapnia: lower than normal CO2
How does a decrease in blood pH affect respiratory rate?
57. What is hypoxia? Why must arterial Po2 change significantly before it affects respiratory rate?
58. Describe the Hering-Breuer reflex and its function.
Limits the degree of inspiration and
prevents overinflation of the lungs
-Infants: Reflex plays a role in regulating basic rhythm of breathing and preventing overinflation of lungs
-Adults: Reflex important only when tidal volume large as in exercise
What mechanisms regulate ventilation at the onset of exercise and then during exercise? What is the anaerobic threshold?
Ventilation increases abruptly
-At onset of exercise
-Movement of limbs has strong influence
Ventilation increases gradually
-After immediate increase, gradual increase occurs (4-6 minutes)
-Anaerobic threshold: highest level of exercise without causing significant change in blood pH. If exceeded, lactic
acid produced by skeletal muscles
60. What effect does training have on resting, submaximal, and maximal tidal volumes and on minute ventilation?
• Vital capacity and maximum minute
• Residual volume and dead spac increase
• Ability to remove mucus from respiratory
• Gas exchange across respiratory membrane is reduced
61. Know the difference between bronchitis, emphysema, cystic fibrosis and pulmonary fibrosis.
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