65 terms

AP Comparative Gov't Final Exam Set #1

This is the first set of cards you should review to prepare for the final exam.
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advanced democracies
the countries have well-established democratic governments and a high level of economic development (Great Britain and the USA)
Communist and post-communist countries
these countries have sought to create a system that limits individual freedoms in order to divide wealth more equally. Communism flourished during the 20th century, but lost ground to democratic regimes by the beginning of the 21st century. Russia and China represent this group.
newly industrialized countries
experiencing rapid economic growth and have shown a tendency toward democratization and political and social stability (Mexico and Iran).
less developed countries
lack significant economic development, and they also tend to have authoritarian governments (Nigeria).
Head of state
a role that symbolizes the power and nature of the regime (British monarch).
Head of government
a role that deals with the everyday tasks of running the government (British prime minister)
Political elite
someone who holds political power.
Authoritarian regimes
Common characteristics of __________ __________ include: a small group of elites exercising power over the state. citizens with little or no input into selection of leaders and government decisions. no constitutional responsibility of leaders to the public. restriction of civil rights and civil liberties.
Consensual political culture
although citizens may disagree on some political processes and policies, they generally agree on how decisions are made, what issues should be addressed, and what problems should be solved. This type of political culture accepts both the legitimacy of the regime and solutions to major problems.
Conflictual political culture
citizens in this political culture are sharply divided, often on both the legitimacy of the regime and solutions to major problems.
Political ideologies
sets of political values held by individuals regarding the basic goals of government and politics.
cleavages
A ______ is a division in a society that
causes people within that society to support different sides of an issue, support a particular political party, or vote differently.
sources of cleavages
1. Wealth (Rich vs. Poor)
2. Region (Urban vs. Rural, Center vs. Periphery)
3. Religion (Catholics vs. Protestants, Christians vs. Muslims, Religious vs. Secular voters)
4. Level of education (University graduates vs. High school graduates)
5. Race
6. Ethnicity
Economic development
____________ is a measure of the social and economic progress of countries.
Increases in ___________ are often indicated by factors such as an increase in the use of new technologies - a move from an agricultural society to an industrial society for instance - and rising living standards.
political ideology
A __________ is a set of ethical principles that helps provide an outline of the proper ordering of society, and explains how society should work.
Communism
advocates a political system in which all property is held in common, usually by the state.
Socialism
advocates a political system in which the means of production and distribution are held in common, usually by the state.
Liberalism
advocates a political system in which the individual is autonomous, civil liberties are respected, and rapid progress is encouraged.
Conservatism
advocates a political system in which traditional institutions are respected and maintained, while allowing for slow and minimal change.
Fascism
advocates a political system in which the nation or a race is seen as most important, not the individual or even the people as a collective.
Substantive Democracy
In a ____________, competitive elections are held and the results are likely representative of the political views of the population. Peaceful transitions from one government to the next are also an important aspect of _______________ies.
Procedural Democracy
In a _____________, elections are held, and the institutions and processes of elected government appear to be in place, but for any number of possible reasons, including electoral fraud and excessive vetting of candidates prior to the election, the results of those elections may not be reflective of the political views of the population.
Liberal Democracy
In a ______________, free, fair and competitive elections are
held, and political liberties such as free speech and press are respected.
Traits include:
1 Free, fair, and competitive elections
2 Large scale disenfranchisement is not a.problem
3 Civil liberties and/or human rights are protected
4 Strong independent judiciaries
5 Large, strong civil societies
Illiberal Democracy
In an _______, elections are not free, fair, or competitive, and/or political liberties such as free speech and press are not respected.
1 Elections without protections of civil liberties and/or human rights
2 A lack of independent judiciaries
3 Small or weak civil societies
4 Large-scale disenfranchisement, often along racial or ethnic cleavages
democratization
the term _____ refers to any movements in a society toward free, fair, and competitive elections of policy makers that reflect the collective will of the society. These movements need not result in a true substantive, liberal democracy to qualify as
_____.
_______ is also present when a system transforms in a way that moves it from being an illiberal democracy to more of a liberal democracy.
_____ is fully achieved when a country's system meets all the requirements of both a substantive democracy and a liberal
democracy.
Transparency
A government is being transparent when it allows the public to see and understand what it is doing and why. No government acts in a completely transparent manner. Many display little transparency at all.
Here are some examples of the types of government actions that indicate transparency.
1. Providing accurate political and economic information to the public
2. Allowing information about government policies to be freely disseminated
3. Allowing citizens numerous avenues to gain information about the government and its actions
4. Allowing information about the government to flow freely, including information that could be damaging to the government, with little or no censorship
5. Allowing independent media to operate free from government control
6. Providing open government proceedings, including courts, legislative sessions, and government hearings
7. Publishing the workings of the government, including laws, rules, budgets, and officials' salaries
8. Choosing leaders in an open way, without secrecy
independent judiciary
An _____ is one that is not subject to the coercion of other parts of the government.
theocracy
A system of government under which a deity is seen as
the supreme ruler, or the entity in which ultimate sovereignty rests.
authoritarian system
An ____ is one led by a leader, or a small group of leaders, who has complete authority and is unaccountable to the population. While ________s can develop following elections, as was seen in Nazi Germany in the 20th century, more often _______s arise following coups and revolutions. Many ___________s are ruled by military leaders.
Command economies
_______ often have many of the following characteristics in common:
1. Central planning of all major economic decisions
2. Fixed or government set prices for goods and services
3. Government control of distribution and production of most, if not all, goods in the economy
4. Government control of employment and wages
5. Government ownership of most economic resources
6. Government ownership of all property, or few private property rights, if any
7. Government determined production levels and production quotas
8. Government created economic "plans" (e.g., 3-year plans, 5-year plans, etc.)
9. Small degree of income inequality for the vast majority of the population
10. Little freedom of choice in economic matters, including occupations, jobs, and housing
Market economies
________ often have many of the following characteristics in common:
1. The law of supply and demand, rather than the government, allocates most resources
2. Private property is largely respected
3. Significant income and wage inequality can be found across a large portion of the society
4. Economic booms and busts (i.e., the business cycle)
5. Persistent unemployment, although the rate of unemployment varies over time
6. Focus is on the profits of businesses
7. Population has significant freedom of choice in occupations, jobs, housing, etc.
8. Competition is expected between workers and between businesses
Globalization
_________ is the process through which the countries of the world are becoming more interconnected in the economic, political, and social realms. Many believe that technology is
driving _____, although other factors may contribute as well. The increased reliance on market economies seen all around the world, the ratification of numerous free trade agreements, and the increasing importance of supranational organizations, such as the European Union (EU), have also played a role.
supranational organizations
Today, groups ranging from the World Bank, World Trade Organization (WTO), and International Monetary Fund (IMF), to the European Union play an important role in world governance. These organizations all have some authority to enforce multilateral agreements on a wide range of issues. At times, member and non-member states have claimed that these organizations infringed upon the sovereignty of nation-states. These organizations can have a significant effect on any number of domestic political issues within member states, including environmental, taxation, and monetary policies. The current standoff in the United Nations over the development of nuclear technology in Iran is but one example of a country claiming that a supranational organization is infringing on its national sovereignty.
Rentier State
a state that regularly derives a substantial portion of its revenues from payments by foreign concerns in the form of rent.
"Rubber Stamp" Legislature
a legislature which uses little or no independent judgment when approving proposed legislation.
Secular
having to do with worldly rather than religious concerns.
Newly-developed Country
a country that has recently moved significantly toward an industrial economy, and, as a result, has seen a significant rise in its standard of living.
Patron-Client Relationships
the relationships seen in systems of clientelism, in which governments hand out privileges to supporters.
Human Development Index
a statistical measure of the development of a society based on levels of health, education, and standard of living.
Industrialization
the process of moving from an agricultural society to an industrial society.
Co-optation
the political tactic of winning over opponents by assimilating some of their positions into your own.
Coup d'etat
the forceful removal of a government, often by the military.
Electorate
voters as a group.
Clientelism
the practice of exchanging public resources for votes, and political support. Often seen in corporatist systems, although its existence is not limited to such systems.
Agricultural Society
a society in which most economic production comes from agriculture.
power
Politics is basically all about ____. Who has the power to make the decisions? How did ______holders get power? What challenges do leaders face from others - both inside and outside the country's borders- in keeping _____? So, as we look at different countries, we are not only concerned about the ins and outs of how the government works; we also look at how _____ is gained, managed, challenged, and maintained
civil society
______ refers to voluntary organizations outside of the state that
help people define and advance their own interests. ______ is usually strong in liberal democracies where individual freedoms are valued and protected. The organizations that compose it may represent class, religious, or ethnic interests, or they may cross them, creating strong bonds among people that exist outside of government control.
state
In today's world, power is territorially organized into _____, or countries, that control what happens within their borders.
German scholar Max Weber defined _____ as the organization that maintains a monopoly of violence over a territory. In other words, the _____ defines who can and cannot use weapons and force, and it sets the rules as to how violence is used. _____ often sponsor armies, navies, and/or air forces that legitimately use power and sometimes violence, but individual citizens are very restricted in their use of force.
institutions
States also include _________: stable, long lasting organizations that help to turn political ideas into policy. Common examples of _______ are bureaucracies, legislatures, judicial systems, and political parties. These institutions make states themselves long lasting, and often help them to endure even when leaders change.
sovereignty
States exercise ________, the ability to carry out actions or policies within their borders independently from interference either from the inside or the outside.

A state that is unable to exercise _____ lacks autonomy, and because it is not independent, it may be exploited by leaders and/or organizations that see the state as a resource to use for their own ends. Frequently, the result is a high level of corruption.
nationalism
the sense of belonging and identity that distinguishes one nation from another.
multinational state
_____ _____ is one that contains more than one nation. The former Soviet Union is a good example of a _____ ______. It was divided into "soviet republics" that were based on nationality, such as the Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Estonia, Latvia, and
Lithuania. When the country fell apart in 1991, it fell along ethnic
boundaries into independent nation-states. Today Russia (one of the former soviet republics) remains a large multinational state that governs many ethnic groups.
regime
The rules that a state sets and follows in exerting its power are referred to collectively as a _____. Regimes endure beyond individual governments and leaders. We refer to a regime when a country's institutions and practices carry over across time, even though leaders and particular issues change. _____ may be compared by using these categories: democracies and authoritarian systems
democratic regime
This type of regime bases its authority on the will of the people. Democracies may be indirect, with elected officials representing the people, or they may be direct, when individuals have immediate say over many decisions that the government makes.
Common characteristics of authoritarian regimes
• A small group of elites exercising power over the state
• Citizens with little or no input into selection of leaders and government decisions
• No constitutional responsibility of leaders to the public
• Restriction of civil rights and civil liberties
military rule
In states where legitimacy and stability are in question, and especially when violence is threatened, the military may intervene directly in politics, since it often is the only organization that can solve the problems.
____ ____ usually lacks a specific ideology, and the leaders often have no source of authority, so they join forces with the state bureaucracy to form an authoritarian regime.
corporatism
Modem ______ is a method through which business, labor, and/ or other interest groups bargain with the state over economic policy.
In its earliest form corporatism emerged as a way that authoritarian regimes tried to control the public by creating or recognizing organizations to represent the interests of the public. This practice makes the government appear to be less authoritarian, but in reality the practice eliminates any input from groups not sanctioned or created by the state. Only a handful of groups have the right to speak for the public, effectively silencing the majority of citizens in political affairs.
patron-clientelism
________, a system in which the state provides specific benefits or favors to a single person or small group in return for public support. Unlike corporatism, ____-____ relies on individual patronage rather than organizations that serve a
large group of people. Responsibilities and obligations are based on a hierarchy between elites and citizens. We will see example of ____-_____ in China, Russia, Mexico, and Nigeria.
pluralism
A basic principle of democracy is ______, a situation in which power is split among many groups that compete for the chance to influence the government's decision-making. This competition is an important way that citizens may express their needs to the government, and in a democracy, the government will react to citizens' input.
legitimacy
the right to rule, as determined by the State's own citizens.
Many factors contribute to ______ in the modem state. In a democracy, the _____ of leaders is based on fair, competitive elections and open political participation by citizens.
Factors that encourage legitimacy in both democratic and authoritarian regimes
• Economic well-being- Citizens tend to credit their government with economic prosperity, and they often blame government for economic hardships, so political legitimacy is reinforced by economic well-being.
• Historical tradition/longevity - If a government has been in place for a long time, citizens and other countries are more likely to view it as legitimate.
• Charismatic leadership - As Max Weber said, charisma is a powerful factor in establishing legitimacy, whether the country is democratic or totalitarian.
• Nationalism/shared political culture - If citizens identify strongly with their nation, not just the state, they are usually more accepting of the legitimacy of the government.
• Satisfaction with the government's performance/responsiveness: Chances are that the government is a legitimate one if citizens receive benefits from the government, if the government wins wars, and/or if citizens are protected from violence and crime.
Traditional legitimacy
1. tradition should determine who rules and how.
2. Most monarchies are based on traditional legitimacy, and their authority is symbolized through crowns, thrones, scepters, and/or robes of a particular color or design.
3. Traditional legitimacy may also be shaped by religion, so that political practices remind people of deep-seated religious beliefs. Many leaders in the Middle East today base authority
on their ability to interpret sharia (traditional religious) law.
Charismatic legitimacy
1. ____ _____ is based on the dynamic personality
of an individual leader or a small group.
2. _____ ______ is notoriously short-lived because it usually does not survive its founder.
Rational-legal legitimacy
1. __________ is based neither on tradition nor on the force of a single personality, but rather on a system of well-established laws and procedures.
2. This type of legitimacy, then, is highly institutionalized, or anchored by strong institutions (such as legislatures, executives, and/or judiciaries) that carry over through generations of individual leaders.
3. People obey leaders because they believe in the rules that brought them to office, and because they accept the concept of a continuous state that binds them together as a nation.
political culture
_______ refers to the collection of political beliefs, values,
practices, and institutions that the government is based on. For example, if a society values individualism, the government will generally reflect this value in the way that it is structured and in the way that it operates. If the government does not reflect basic political values of a people, it will have difficulty remaining viable.
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