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Quarter 3 Review (Human Body Systems)
Terms in this set (75)
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
Location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell
Chemical messengers that cross the synapse to transmit impulses between neurons
A long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the neuron cell body to other neurons, or to muscles or glands.
A neuron's branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
nerves that receive stimuli and trigger impulses
cells in the spinal cord through which reflexes travel without going to the brain
a neuron that sends an impulse to a muscle or gland, causing the muscle or gland to react
Conscious activities of the brain; memory, intelligence,, language, reasoning, movement and senses.
Control of finely coordinated movements. Coordination center, voluntary movement and balance.
Found in the brain stem, contains autonomic centers which regulate blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, swallowing, and vomiting,
Connection between a sensory neuron, inter-neuron and a motor neuron that allows an extremely rapid response to a stimulus, often without conscious brain involvement.
A change in the environment (external or internal) that is detected by sensory receptors.
collection of glands that secrete HORMONES into the blood which regulate growth, development, metabolism and homeostasis
Chemical messengers (proteins) that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues (specific receptors = target cell)
A portion of the brain that controls homeostatic and endocrine functions by controlling the release of pituitary hormones.
On a target cell, a specific protein to whose shape fits that of a specific hormone
The major endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain, important in controlling growth, development and the functioning of the other endocrine glands.
A type of regulation that responds to a change in conditions by initiating responses that will counteract the change. Maintains a steady state.
endocrine gland located below the voice box; it produces hormones which control metabolism
Organ that secretes insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream to help regulate blood glucose levels.
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
Ovaries and Testes
Sex glands that produce hormones and sex cells (female-estrogen and ova; male-testosterone and sperm)
The windpipe; tube leading from the larynx to the lungs; a passage through which air moves in the respiratory system
Airways in the lungs that lead from the trachea to the bronchioles.
Airways in the lungs that lead from the bronchi to the alveoli.
progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
(singular alveolus.) Tiny sacs, with walls only a single cell layer thick found at the end of the respiratory bronchiole tree. Alveoli are the site of gas exchange in the respiratory system.
exchange of 02 andC02 between the blood and the metabolically active tissues
Exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) at the lung capillaries (external respiration) and at the tissue capillaries (internal respiration).
the hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords in humans and other mammals; the voice box.
muscle that controls your ability to inhale (down) and exhale (up).
A protein shape on the membrane of a cell that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody
A protein produced by some white blood cells to attack a specific foreign pathogen.
Genetic material surrounded by a protein shell that invades living cells to reproduce.
A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease.
A member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms lacking organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease.
A chemical that kills bacteria or slows their growth without harming body cells.
A weakened form of the virus is given to the person so their immune system can build up immunity (antibodies) to the virus before they become sick.
form in bone marrow, mature in thymus, have receptors that target specific antigens, 2 kinds: killer and helper
Cells manufactured in the bone marrow that create antibodies for isolating and destroying invading bacteria and viruses.
Retro-virus that destroys one's immune system, making him or her susceptible to opportunistic diseases.
overreaction of the immune system to an antigen, causing histamine reactions
Reaction of the immune system to an allergen; causes inflammation, sneezing, itching, etc.
The process in which white blood cells take in and destroy foreign material
disorder in which the immune system attacks the body's own molecules
Red Blood Cells
blood cells containing hemoglobin that carry oxygen and carbon dioxide through the bloodstream
Clear yellowish fluid, about 90 percent water, that suspends cells in the blood
Protein in red blood cells that works with iron to carry oxygen and transport it to the body
White Blood Cells
Various kinds of blood cells that fight disease. There are 12 different kinds such as T-cells and B-cells. B-cells create antibodies.
Cell fragments that play an important part in forming blood clots (fibrin)
a classification of blood that depends on the type of antigen present on the surface of the red blood cell; A, B, AB, or O
Specialized proteins, made by B-cells, to disable a pathogen and flag it for destruction (binds to a specific antigen)
Refers to the presence or absence of the Rhesus antigen on red blood cells; Determines whether the blood is positive or negative.
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
Microscopic vessel through which exchanges (diffusion) take place between the blood and cells of the body
A heart chamber that receives blood.
The two lower chambers of the heart, thicker walled/stronger, which force blood out of the heart and into arteries.
Blood vessels that supply the muscle of the heart.
Blood vessels carrying blood to or from the lungs
One of two large vessels (superior and inferior) that return deoxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart.
Largest artery; carries blood from left ventricle to the rest of the body
An organism/cell that causes disease
Breakdown of food substances (polymers) into simpler forms (monomers) that can be absorbed and used
Enzymes break down food into smaller molecules (glucose, amino acids, fatty acids)
Food physically broken into smaller pieces (teeth, churning, acid, bile)
Rhythmic muscular contractions that squeeze food through the digestive tract, beginning in the esophagus to the stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction (catalyst) in a living thing. Each individual enzyme only breaks down one specific nutrient. Enzymes are effected by temperature and pH.
A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach (using peristalsis to move the food).
A flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.
Digestive organ where all chemical digestion is completed and absorption of food takes place (villi facilitate diffusion from digestive tract to blood stream)
The last section of the digestive system, where water is re-absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body. Vitamins K and B are produced by bacteria and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and provide a large surface area through which digested food is absorbed from digestive tract to bloodstream.
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