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Arts and Humanities
rehtorical fallacies delfin
Terms in this set (15)
Making assumptions about a whole group or range of cases based on a sample that is inadequate (usually because it is atypical or just too small).
missing the point
The premises of an argument do support a particular conclusion—but not the conclusion that the arguer actually draws.
Assuming that because B comes after A, A caused B. two events that seem related in time aren't really related as cause and event. That is, correlation isn't the same thing as causation.
The arguer claims that a sort of chain reaction, usually ending in some dire consequence, will take place, but there's really not enough evidence for that assumption
If the two things that are being compared aren't really alike in the relevant respects, the analogy is a weak one
appeal to authority
get readers to agree with us simply by impressing them with a famous name or by appealing to a supposed authority who really isn't much of an expert
ad populum (appeal to the people)
the arguer takes advantage of the desire most people have to be liked and to fit in with others and uses that desire to try to get the audience to accept his or her argument (bandwagon)
ad hominem and tu quoque
focus our attention on people rather than on arguments or evidence. the arguer attacks his or her opponent instead of the opponent's argument.
appeal to pity
takes place when an arguer tries to get people to accept a conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone.
appeal to ignorance
the arguer basically says, "Look, there's no conclusive evidence on the issue at hand. Therefore, you should accept my conclusion on this issue."
the arguer sets up a wimpy version of the opponent's position and tries to score points by knocking it down.
Partway through an argument, the arguer goes off on a tangent, raising a side issue that distracts the audience from what's really at stake. Often, the arguer never returns to the original issue.
the arguer sets up the situation so it looks like there are only two choices. The arguer then eliminates one of the choices, so it seems that we are left with only one option
begging the question
an argument that begs the question asks the reader to simply accept the conclusion without providing real evidence; the argument either relies on a premise that says the same thing as the conclusion or simply ignores an important assumption that the argument rests on.
sliding between two or more different meanings of a single word or phrase that is important to the argument.
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