21 terms

Chapter 5 Terms

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analogy approach
you use a similar project's WBS as a starting point.
bottom-up approach
team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible. They then aggregate the specific tasks and organize them into summary activities, or higher levels in the WBS. For example, a group of people might be responsible for creating a WBS to develop an e-commerce application. Instead of looking for guidelines on how to create a WBS or viewing WBSs from similar projects, they could
begin by listing detailed tasks they think they would need to perform in order to create the application. After listing these detailed tasks, they would group the tasks into categories. Then they would group these categories into higher-level categories.
deliverable
describes a product created as part of a project
mind mapping,
project scope management
includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not included in a project. It ensures that the project team and stakeholders have the same understanding of what products the project will produce and whatprocesses the project team will use to produce them
prototyping
involves developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system. These working replicas may be throwaways or an incremental component of the deliverable system. Prototyping is an effective tool for gaining an understanding of requirements, determining the feasibility of requirements, and resolving user interface uncertainties
requirement
"conditions or capabilities that must be met by the project or present in the product, service, or result to satisfy
an agreement or other formally imposed specification."
requirements traceability matrix
is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed
scope
refers to all the work involved in creating the products of
the project and the processes used to create them.
scope creep
the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger
top-down approach
start with the largest items of the project and break them into subordinate items. This process involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail. For example, Figure 5-4 shows how work was broken down to Level 4 for part of the intranet project. After finishing the process, all resources should be assigned at the work package level. The top-down approach is best suited to project managers who
have vast technical insight and a big-picture perspective
work breakdown structure (WBS)
is a deliverable oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines its total scope. Because most
projects involve many people and many different deliverables, it is important to organize and divide the work into logical parts based on how the work will be performed. The WBS is a foundation document in project management because it provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs, resources, and changes.

Work Breakdown Structures
You can use several approaches to develop a work breakdown structure:
• Using guidelines
• The analogy approach
• The top-down approach
• The bottom-up approach
• The mind-mapping approach
work package
is a task at the lowest level of the WBS. In Figure 5-4, tasks 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.3, and 1.2.4 (based on the numbering on the left) are work packages. The other tasks would probably be broken down further. However, some tasks can remain at Level 2 or 3 in the WBS. Some might be broken down to Level 5 or 6, depending on the complexity of the work. A work package also represents the level of work that the project manager monitors and controls. You can think of work packages in terms of accountability and reporting. If a project has a relatively short time frame and requires weekly progress reports, a work package might represent work completed in one week or less.
benchmarking
generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization
decomposition
subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces
join application development (JAD)
using highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders to jointly define and design information systems
project scope statement
a document that includes at least a description of the product, including its overall objectives and justification, detailed descriptions of all project deliverables, and the characteristics and requirements of products and services produced as part of the project.
scope baseline
the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary
scope validation
formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables
use case modeling
a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them
variance
the difference between planned and actual performance
WBS dictionary
a document that includes detailed information about each WBS item