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Terms in this set (339)
____ knowledge refers to information regarding facts and ideas, which can be stated in terms of propositions (sometimes described as "knowing that").
Your knowledge about cognitive psychology, about world history, about your own personal history, and about mathematics all rely on your mental representation of what cognitive psychologists call ____ knowledge.
____ knowledge refers to information regarding how to execute a sequence of operations (sometimes described as "knowing how").
Your knowledge of how to ride a bicycle, how to write your signature, how to drive a car to a familiar location, and how to catch a ball all depend on your mental representation of what cognitive psychologists call ____ knowledge.
____ refers to an approach to understanding cognition that involves an attempt to enable machines such as computers to simulate various cognitive processes that characterize human intelligence.
____ refer(s) to the use of multiple approaches and techniques to come together in addressing a problem or in responding to a question.
The fundamental unit of symbolic knowledge is typically viewed as a ____.
A ____ refers to an idea or a thought about something that aids in understanding the world.
The fundamental unit of symbolic knowledge is a ____, which may be grouped into ____.
Animals, plants and geological formations are best described as _____.
Motor vehicles and kitchen appliances are best described as _____.
Which type of category is flexible and can change over time?
ad hoc categories
Which of the following is not a defining feature of bachelor?
____ are essential elements of a given concept
The term wife is comprised of a number of components, namely adult, female, and married. These are called _____.
A ____ feature is possessed by every instance of a concept, but a ____ feature need not be.
____ are words such as bachelor that can be readily defined through defining features.
______ are features that are typically present and are consistent with the exemplars for that particular concept.
____ typically described using characteristic features as opposed to defining features.
____ are well-described by defining features.
Classical concepts are to ____ as fuzzy concepts are to ____.
defining features; prototypes
____ are typical representations of a category.
According to the ____ approach, we have several typical representatives of categories that are used when trying to categorize concepts.
According to the varying abstraction model (VAM), prototypes and exemplars are simply two extremes on a continuum of abstraction with exemplars nearer the ____ end of the spectrum and prototypes nearer the ____ end of the spectrum.
A(n) ____ refers to defining features that must be present to be considered part of a particular category.
A(n) ____ view of meaning holds that people understand and categorize concepts in terms of implicit theories, or general ideas they have regarding those concepts.
A dog could be described as being a mammal that barks and has four legs, two ears, a tail, and a slightly elongated snout. Jenny's neighbor has a "dog" that has lost a leg and his tail. According to a theory-based view of categorization, Jenny is most likely to classify the neighbor's pet as ____.
a type of a dog
A child passes a person on the street that has a short hairstyle. Although this hairstyle is more typical for males, most children understand that the person could be a female. This understanding, that sometimes the underlying reality cannot be directly observed, is referred to as ____.
A ____ network refers to a web of labeled relations among interconnected elements.
In the network approach, an "is a" category membership relation, which connects "pig" to "mammal," establishes meaningful connections between ____.
In the ____, the labeled relationship of attributes, which connects "furry" to "mammal," establishes meaningful connections between nodes.
A ____ refers to an element representing a concept within a semantic network.
According to a semantic-network model, when we think about cats, the ____ for cats becomes ____.
In the network approach, the connections between nodes are ____ relationships, which might involve category membership, attributes, or some other semantic relation.
Information can economically be represented in a hierarchical model when items lower in the hierarchy are assumed to have the properties of items higher in the hierarchy. This is referred to as ____.
When shown a red, edible, roundish object, you would most probably call it an apple, rather than identifying its type like Honeycrisp apple or a Red Delicious apple. This suggests that "apple"
the basic level of specificity
A concept's basic level of specificity is the one that has the ____ number of distinctive properties.
A ____ refers to a mental framework for meaningfully organizing various interrelated concepts.
Which mental framework provides a meaningful structure for concepts that are related, and provides general facts about the concept that allows inferences based on prior experiences?
Ben's parents call to tell him they will be going to a fancy restaurant for dinner. Without any additional information, most people will assume that someone paid a tip to the waiter or waitress at dinner that night. The ability to fill in missing information (e.g., knowing that a tip was paid) best illustrates the use of ____.
A ____ contains information about the particular order in which things occur.
In ____ processing, only one elementary information process is executed at any one time, and multiple processes are handled sequentially.
_____ is specialized vocabulary that a particular group uses that may not be understood by those who are not members of the group.
Computer simulations of ____ follow certain rules (if-then rules), including an "if" clause and a "then" clause.
If your car is veering toward the left side of the road, then you should steer toward the right side of the road. The "if" clause includes a set of conditions that must be met in order to implement the "then" clause. This illustrates the use of ____.
A(n) ____ includes the entire set of rules for executing a particular task or using a particular skill.
If the crosswalk light is red, you should stop and continue to monitor the light to see if it stays red. If the crosswalk light is green, you should start moving. This is a simple ____.
Which of the following is not a type of non-declarative knowledge in Larry Squire's theory?
Sarah's grandmother always bakes an apple pie when Sarah comes to visit. Now, whenever Sarah smells an apple pie, she immediately thinks of her grandmother. This type of knowledge is referred to as ____ knowledge.
Timmy, a four-year-old, has learned that to stay warm in the winter cold, he must wear lots of clothes. He learned this after several trials of going outside without a coat on and quickly returning to the house uncomfortably cold. This type of knowledge is referred to as ____ knowledge.
As your explicit access to nondeclarative knowledge decreases, your implicit access____.
becomes easier and faster
There has a construction crew right outside of Mr. Jones's second-grade classroom for months. When the construction began, Mr. Jones found that the children were easily distracted by the noise. Now that the construction has been going on for so long, the children typically pay no attention to the noises. This phenomenon is habituation, which is a type of ____ knowledge.
____ refers to the facilitation of information retrieval, as a result of prior stimulation or activation of related information (or even of the same information).
If someone asks you to spell the word sight, you will probably spell it differently, depending on whether you have been talking about vision ("s-i-g-h-t") or about locations for an archaeological dig ("s-i-t-e"). This bias reflects the ____ effect.
According to Michael Posner, ____ priming refers to priming based on meaningful context or meaningful information.
According to Michael Posner, ____ priming is based on prior exposure to a word or other stimulus that affects a subsequent retrieval of that information.
____ integrates a network representation for declarative knowledge and a production-system representation for procedural knowledge.
ACT (adaptive control of thought)
Anderson's ____ model of mental representation and information processing incorporates both declarative and procedural knowledge.
Anderson referred to temporal information about the sequencing of action and events as temporal ____.
In network models, each node is receptive to stimulation from neighboring nodes, resulting in ____.
spread of activation
According to ____, the amount of activation between a prime and a given target node is a function of the number of links connecting the prime and the target and the relative strength of each connection.
spreading activation theories
In ____, stimuli activate nodes within a network and that activation causes connections between nodes to become active.
According to Anderson (1980), the first stage of the acquisition of procedural knowledge is the ____ stage.
According to Anderson (1980), while we are in the ____ stage of learning how to drive a standard-shift car, we explicitly think about each rule for stepping on the clutch, gas, or brake pedal, while also trying to shift gears.
According to Anderson (1980), while we are in the ____ stage of learning how to drive a standard-shift car, we must consciously and consistently practice each rule while shifting gears.
According to Anderson (1980), while we are in the ____ stage of learning how to drive a standard-shift car, we have integrated all of the various rules into a single, coordinated series of actions.
____ refers to the process by which we construct a mental representation of nondeclarative knowledge.
The process of learning to drive a standard shift moves from having to carefully think about each step in shifting gears to being able to do so without explicit thought. This process can be described as ____.
Neurological and other research indicates that human cognition primarily involves ____.
. According to ____ models, we handle very large numbers of cognitive operations at once through a network distributed across incalculable numbers of locations in the brain.
paralleled distributed processing
In the parallel distributed processing model proposed by McClelland and Rumelhart, the network is made of ____ and the knowledge is represented by the pattern of connections.
In the brain, a neuron can be ____.
excitatory, inhibitory, or inactive
in the parallel distributed processing model proposed by McClelland and Rumelhart, knowledge is represented by ____.
the pattern of interconnections
In the brain, at any one given time, a given neuron may assume each of the following activities, EXCEPT one. Identify the exception.
In the parallel distributed processing model proposed by McClelland and Rumelhart, the more often a particular connection is activated, the ____.
the greater the strength of the connection
According to the parallel distributed processing model proposed by McClelland and Rumelhart, whenever we use knowledge, we ____.
change our representation of it
"Connectionist" models are also referred to as ____.
parallel distributed processing models
In early artificial intelligence research, investigators tried to write programs that were ____.
as domain-general as possible
The term modularity refers to the ____,
a. particular mode of thought in which the brain functions
processing of information in the brain via separate and specialized units
One of the most influential books in the field of cognitive science during the 1980s was ____'s The Modularity of Mind, which presented the argument for extreme domain-specificity.
A scientist who studies classic epistemology would be studying the ____.
nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge
Declarative knowledge includes ____.
facts that can be stated
"The U.S. Constitution was ratified in 1789" is an example of ____ knowledge.
Which type of knowledge involves knowing how to do something, like how to ride a bicycle?
In ____, the relationship between a word and what it represents is arbitrary.
Imagery includes ____.
representations perceived through any senses
We are typically most aware of our use of ____ imagery.
According to Allan Paivio, mental representations for words are represented in a(n) ____ code, whereas visual images are represented in a(n) ____ code.
Which type of code preserves some feature of what is being represented?
Which type of code arbitrarily stands for what it represents and does not preserve the original features?
The dual-code theory was first proposed by ____.
The dual-code theory states that ____.
some information is represented in a verbal form, some in a nonverbal form, and some is encoded and stored in both forms.
Debbie is trying to recall the words to the French national anthem. Jim is trying to recall the exact appearance of the Statue of Liberty. If asked, Paivio would probably say that Debbie is retrieving information stored in a(n) ____ code, whereas Jim is retrieving information stored in a(n) ____ code.
Which theory suggests that our mental representations can take one of two forms—pictorial or verbal?
Which theory suggests that our mental representations are in an abstract form?
Brooks conducted a study in which participants performed a visual (involving a picture) or verbal (involving a sentence) task. Participants expressed their responses verbally (saying "yes" or "no" aloud), visually (pointing to an answer), or manually (tapping with one hand to agree and the other to disagree). Based on dual code theory, he hypothesized that ____.
a. there w
when the task and response modalities were the same, responses would be slower
____ have moved beyond the original version of propositional theory to include multiple forms of mental representations.
John Anderson and Gordon Bower
____ proposed the idea that mental images are epiphenomena and that we manipulate images using a propositional code, not an analogous one.
According to the propositional theory, ____.
both imaginal information and verbal information are stored as encoded propositions, ready to be called up and decoded as either verbal or visual
If images are simply a result or byproduct of other cognitive processes, they are conceptualized as a(n) ____.
John mentally represents a boat sailing under a bridge. He then represents what he has heard: a person shouting from a car downtown. According to the Anderson and Bower's hypothesis, ____ is/are encoded as (a) proposition(s).
both of the representations
In experiments using ambiguous figures, Chambers and Reisberg concluded that because most subjects could ____.
not visualize alternate interpretations of an ambiguous figure, an imaginal code may be overridden by a propositional code in some case
____ have at least two different interpretations.
In ____, there is a shift in the positional orientations of the figures on the mental "page."
Which manipulation of ambiguous figures involves a reinterpretation of parts of the figure?
In ____, there is a reinterpretation of the stimulus.
One view of ambiguous figures suggests that people use two types of manipulations: ____.
mental reconstrual and mental realignment
In Peterson's research, the ____ involved participants first being shown another ambiguous figure involving realignment of the reference frame.
implicit reference frame hint
Which type of hint involves directing participants to realign their frame of reference?
explicit reference frame hint
Which type of hint involves directing participants to the region of the ambiguous figure where either the realignment or reconstruals are to occur?
Which type of hint involves identifying sections of an ambiguous figure for analysis by participants?
construal from "good" parts
Which hypothesis proposes that, although visual imagery is not identical to visual perception, they are strongly analogous to each other and can accomplish the same goals?
functional equivalence hypothesis
According to Finke's principles of visual imagery, the processes involved in visual imagery are functionally ____.
equivalent to the processes involved in visual perception
Some individuals experiencing positive symptoms of schizophrenia experience auditory hallucinations. Their difficulty distinguishing the hallucinations and reality is consistent with the ____.
functional equivalence hypothesis
The classic experiment on mental rotations was performed by __
roger Shepard and Jacqueline Metzler
Abhilasha, an architect, often drives past a large office complex with a number of distinctively-shaped buildings as well as fountains and other greenspaces. At her office, her employer shows her some of the concept drawings for the complex. First, she examines a drawing of the complex from ground level along the street from which she usually views it. As she sees each successive drawing showing the complex from progressively different angles, she starts to have difficulty recognizing the building as the town hall. Abhilasha's difficulty is due to the fact that ____.
as objects are rotated, it becomes increasingly difficult to identify them
Research on mental rotation requiring participants to indicate whether or not a rotated image represented a reference figure has demonstrated that ____.
for every increase in the degree of rotation of the figures, there was a corresponding increase in response time
Recent fMRI work suggests that brain areas used in ____.
visual perception are the same as those used in mental rotation
Which statement regarding gender differences in mental rotation ability is true?
In young children, there are no gender differences in mental rotation performance.
It is easiest to visualize details of a ____.
Stephen Kosslyn found that ____.
the resolution for objects that take up a large area of the mental screen is more detailed than it is for objects that are smaller
Research on visualization in children and adults has found that ____.
younger used imagery even when not instructed to do so.
In a study on image scanning, Kosslyn found that it takes longer mentally to scan ____.
longer distances than shorter distances
Steven Pinker's participants first observed and then mentally represented a three-dimensional array of objects, and finally mentally scanned from one object to another. The results for three-dimensional scanning ____ two-dimensional scanning.
are the same as those for
Many people with spatial neglect also have ____ neglect - a tendency to ignore half of an imagined scene.
Jane is asked to imagine standing on the north end of the town square and then describe what she sees. In her description, Jane reports all of the buildings on the east side of the square, but none from the west side of the square. Based on this report, one might conclude that Jane is experiencing ____.r
Margaret Intons-Peterson manipulated experimenter expectancies by suggesting to one group of experimenters that task performance would be expected to be better for perceptual tasks than for imaginal ones. She suggested the opposite outcome to a second group of experimenters. When experimenters expected imaginal performance to be better than perceptual performance, participants responded accordingly, and vice versa. Thus, experimental participants performing visualization tasks may be responding in part to the ____ of the task.
In an experiment testing the influence of demand characteristics by Jolicoeur and Kosslyn, experimenters were led to believe that the results would form a U-shaped curve, although they were actually expected to form a line. In this case, the experimental results ____.
formed a line
Which Johnson-Laird form consists of knowledge structures based on prior experience that help in understanding experiences?
Which Johnson-Laird form is distinguished from the others in that it can be verbally expressed?
Which Johnson-Laird form consists of a very specific view of a particular object/environment that retains many of the perceptual features of the actual object or environment?
ancy Kerr asked participants who were blind from birth, as well as those who were normally-sighted to imagine various common objects of various sizes. She then asked questions about the objects. What did she find?
although people who were blind from birth responded more slowly, they response patterns were similar to those of people with normal sight.
Research on audition (hearing) has found that ____.
auditory mental images function similar to visual mental images
initial neuropsychological research on mental imagery came from studies of patients with identified ____ and from ____.
lesions; split-brain patients
Gazzaniga and Sperry have noted that lesions in particular areas of the left side of the brain seem to affect ____, whereas lesions in certain areas of the right side of the brain seem to affect ____.
symbol manipulation; visuospatial manipulation
According to Gazzaniga and Sperry, lesions in the right hemisphere are associated with impaired ____.
visual perception and visual memory
Impairment of verbal memory and verbal comprehension is consistent with lesions in the ____.
Impairment of visual memory and visual perception is consistent with lesions in the ____.
Michael Corballis suggested that "humans alone can conceive what they have never perceived" because the ____ of the human brain has the ability to manipulate imaginal components and symbols and to generate entirely new information.
Martha Farah found that visual imagery and spatial imagery appear to be ____.
separate subsystems of imagery representation
As a result of injury, L.H. had lesions in the right and the left temporo-occipital regions, the right temporal lobe, and the right inferior frontal lobe. L.H.'s injuries suggested impairment of his ability to ____.
represent and manipulate both visual and spatial images
L.H. was able to see and was able to draw, but he was unable to _____.
link verbal labels to what he had drawn
L.H.'s lesions and abilities were consistent with ____.
differences between spatial and visual imagery
Edward Tolman argued that rats running a maze learn a ____, an internal representation of the maze.
Nobel Prize-winning scientist Karl van Frisch found that ____ communicate based on some type of imaginal maps.
In a study in which participants were asked to estimate distances between buildings on a map they had seen, the participants guessed ____ distances when traveling to a landmark than when traveling to a non-landmark.
When using landmark knowledge, people tend to distort their mental images so that their mental estimates of distances ____.
increase in relation to the density of intervening landmarks
Which type of knowledge is about specific features?
Which type of spatial knowledge provides an overview of a space and contains information that would allow for estimating the distances between various landmarks?
When looking at the map that Quinlan drew of his hometown, one notices that streets with "odd" intersections appear to be more perpendicular than what they really are. This is consistent with ____
The map that Quinlan draws of the city that he lives in appears to be more "even" than what it really is. Streets that are not of the same length as in his drawing. The distribution of the city appears to be more even that what it really is. This is consistent with ____.
The ____ heuristic seems equally strong in memory and perception.
When estimating distances between two cities connected by a highway, people tend to rely most heavily on ____.
Tversky's propositional heuristics include the ____ heuristic.
According to Barbara Tversky's alignment heuristic, people tend to ____.
distort their mental images so that landmarks are better aligned than they are in reality
Bill has often seen a main city street lined with buildings. He attempts to mentally represent the street, but he distorts it so that the buildings are all the same distance from the street, when in reality they are different distances from the street. Which heuristic has Bill used?
the alignment heuristic
The rotation heuristic states that people tend to represent ____.
slightly slanted objects as being more horizontal or more vertical than they really are
Ragini is mentally representing a map of her town. She represents a number of different landmarks. She will most likely estimate that the distance between two houses that look very similar as ____ the distance between two that look different, even if the distances are, in fact, identical.
In which heuristic are distortions based more on conceptual knowledge than on spatial configurations?
In a study on students' perceptions of world maps, Jukka Saarinen found that, in general, students drew maps that ____.
reflected a Eurocentric view of the world
Maps that are created from verbal descriptions ____.
may be as accurate as those created from looking at a graphic map
Cognitive maps can be constructed from a number of different sources of information (e.g., procedural knowledge). A ____ map is based on verbal descriptions.
____ refers to how you transform a physical, sensory input into a kind of representation that can be placed into memory.
____ refers to how you retain encoded information in memory.
____ refers to how you retain encoded information in memory.
The processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval ____ with each other and are
Research shows that encoding in short-term memory is primarily ____.
In R. Conrad's (1964) landmark experiment on encoding in short-term memory, Conrad found that despite the fact that letters were presented ____ to participants, errors tended to be based on ____ confusability.
It appears that although encoding in short-term memory is primarily ____, there may be some secondary ____ encoding, and perhaps even fleeting ____ encoding.
acoustic; semantic; visual
Short-term memory is usually encoded ____ and long-term memory is usually encoded ____.
Encoding of information in the long-term store is primarily ____, but there is also is evidence for ____ encoding.
Information stored in long-term memory seems to be primarily ____.
On his way to the supermarket, Marcelo remembers that he needs tomatoes and cucumbers. He then remembers that he also needs cheese, eggs, and milk. The order in which he remembered the grocery items illustrates that information stored in long-term memory seems to be primarily encoded ____.
The process of taking new information and integrating it with stored information in long term memory is called ____.
____ is an aspect of cognition that involves thinking about how to remember more effectively, such as by using various mental strategies.
By making connections or associations between new information and what we already know we facilitate transfer of information from short-term memory to ____ memory.
Manuela, a college student, has a clear awareness of what she knows and does not know about a particular topic, such that when she needs to study for an exam, she knows exactly what to study to enhance her understanding. This description illustrates ____.
An individual can reflect on and use his/her awareness or knowledge to influence thinking. This use of your knowledge about cognitive processes is called ____.
In which type of rehearsal does the learner try to make the information more meaningful and/or connects the information to other information already learned?
In which type of rehearsal does the individual simply repeat the information to be learned over and over again?
____ practice refers to learning in which various sessions are spaced over time.
people tend to learn better when they acquire knowledge via ____ learning.
Shantell has a cumulative final exam in physics coming up. To ensure a good grade, she has been studying throughout the semester, at least one hour each day. Shantell's studying schedule illustrates ____ practice.
____ practice refers to learning in which sessions are crammed together all at once.
The greater recall associated with distributed practice is called the ____ effect.
Which stage of sleep seems to be important for the process of consolidating memories?
Animal research has revealed that cells in the ____ that are activated during initial learning are reactivated during sleep.
During sleep, the ____ is more active after learning new spatial information.
The hippocampus shows increased activation during sleep after one has learned new declarative information. This increased activation is correlated with extremely ____ levels of acetylcholine. If patients are given acetylcholine while sleeping, they demonstrate ____ memory for the new information.
Even when presented with a seemingly random list of words to recall, people spontaneously cluster the words into categories. For example, when presented with a list like "milk, dog, cat, juice," they might cluster milk and juice together as beverages and cat and dog together as animals. This spontaneous ____ reflects the way memory is structured.
organization of information
in an effort to remember some grocery items, Andrew visualizes a huge loaf of bread, with a bottle of soda balanced on one side of the bread and a can of soup on the other. Andrew is using ____.
Mnemonic devices are best described as ____.
specific techniques to help you memorize lists of words
Frank is organizing his grocery list into a set of categories in order to remember what he needs to buy at the store. Frank is using what type of memory technique?
You are imagining taking a walk around an area with distinctive landmarks, matching up a landmark with a specific item you need to remember. Which memory technique are you using?
method of loci
In ____, we use the physical constraints of our environment to help us remember things (e.g., putting an important document on your alarm clock so you remember to take it to work).
Tying a string around your finger, keeping a list of things to do, and asking someone to remind you of something are all examples of strategies to improve ____.
Memory for events that occurred in the past is most accurately termed ____ memory.
When multiple memory processes are said to occur simultaneously, the processing is best described as ____.
When memory processes are said to occur in order, one after the other, the processing is best described as ____.
In an exhaustive serial processing search of short-term memory, people generally take ____ amount(s) of time to find
the same; regardless of where in the list it is located.
Sometimes we know that we know something, like the name of a neighbor from many years ago, but we just cannot bring it to mind. In this situation, we are experiencing difficulty with ____.
Whereas ____ theory views one piece of information as knocking out another, ____ theory views the original piece of information as gradually disappearing unless something is done to keep it intact.
____ occurs when competing information causes us to forget something.
In general, as the amount of learning prior to recall increases, ____ increases.
____ refers to the idea that particular information has been permanently stored in long-term memory and, hence, can be retrieved.
According to the ____ theory of forgetting, forgetting occurs because new information ultimately displaces old information in the short-term store.
Stephanie has been studying for two exams scheduled on the same day, one for her Spanish class and the other for French. While taking the Spanish exam, she remembers more French than Spanish. Stephanie is most likely to be experiencing ____.
Seth participated in a memory experiment. He has been instructed to count backwards between the last presentation of a stimulus and recall of the stimulus. This procedure was probably designed to ____.
prevent participants from rehearsing
_____ of a stimulus and before recall of the stimulus is an example of a task designed to prevent participants from rehearsing.
counting backwards immediately after the last presentation
In memory studies, the retention interval refers to the time ____.
between the presentation of the last stimulus and the start of the recall phase
___ interference occurs when newly acquired knowledge impedes the recall of older material.
Retroactive interference is caused by new learning occurring ____ we learned the target information and ____ we are asked to recall the target information.
At a party, Hoshiko was introduced to Steve just as she arrived. Hoshiko then went off to speak with a different group and was introduced to each of them as well. After hearing the new names, Hoshiko could not remember Steve's name. This description best illustrates ____.
Sandra has just come from studying with some classmates to whom she has just been introduced. She then runs into a good friend who introduces her to David. As Sandra walks away, she realizes that she can't remember David's name. This description illustrates ____.
____ interference occurs when the interfering material was learned before, rather than after, learning of the to-be-remembered material.
Proactive interference occurs when the interfering material is learned ____ rather than ____ the to-be-remembered material.
Keppel and Underwood (1962) showed that proactive interference can operate in the forgetting of material stored in the ____.
The serial-position curve represents the probability of recall of ____.
. a given word, given its order of presentation in a list
A typical serial position curve shows that recall of words in a list is best for items ____ of the list and poorest for items ____.
at and near the end; in the middle
Superior recall of words at and near the beginning of a list is referred to as a(n) ____ effect.
After being given directions to get to the theater, Kurt can remember only the first part of where to turn. This illustrates the ____ effect.
Superior recall of words at and near the end of a list is referred to as a(n) ____ effect.
After being given directions to get to the park, Galvin can remember only the last part of where he is to turn. This illustrates the ____ effect.
The serial-position curve can be well explained in terms of the ____ theory of forgetting.
Words at the ____ of a list in a free-recall task are most subject to proactive interference.
Words at the ____ of a list in a free-recall task are most subject to retroactive interference.
Words at the ____of a list in a free-recall task are subject to both proactive and retroactive interference.
____ occurs when simply the passage of time results in our forgetting.
___ theory asserts that information is forgotten because of the gradual disappearance of the memory trace.
Marianne took a chemistry course three years ago in high school and has not studied any chemistry since. She believes that the reason why she barely remembers any chemistry is because she has not used it. This illustrates the ____ theory of forgetting.
Results from many studies suggest that the forgetting of information from short-term memory can largely be accounted for by ____.
Linton's self-study of autobiographical memory found that her rate of forgetting events was ____.
Enhanced vividness and perceptual detail of our recollections has been associated with ____.
a memory's emotional intensity
____ memory refers to a memory of an event that is so emotionally powerful that the person remembers the event as vividly as if it were indelibly preserved on film
Reyna won an Olympic gold medal many years ago. Yet, she can still recall with great detail and vividness standing on the podium, medal in hand. This is an example of a(n) ____ memory.
Many people believe that they remember with great detail and vividness the context in which they heard the news that the Challenger space shuttle had exploded. This is an example of a(n) ____ memory.
When someone has information "on the tip of their tongue," but is unable to retrieve it, ____ is occurring.
Jennifer cannot remember where she heard that pigs were very intelligent animals. Roger thinks he read in The Sunday Herald that Death Valley is the warmest spot in the United States; however, he really read about Death Valley in Outside Magazine. These memory lapses are examples of ____.
Studies show that memory is not just ____, such that we use only what we have encountered to help us rebuild original remembered experience; it is also ____, in that our schemas for prior experience affect how we recall things.
Tony keeps mentally reliving the time that he was hit in the head with a Frisbee. This reoccurrence of this memory is an example of ____.
The difficulty in recalling information that one knows they should know is called ____.
Your friend insists that you both saw your cognitive psychology professor dancing, rather laughably, at a local club. Because of ____, you may believe that you actually saw the spectacle when, in fact, you did not.
The notion that some types of memories (e.g., due to trauma) have been "pushed deep into the unconscious" and therefore may be difficult to retrieve is known as ____.
When the perpetrator (person who committed a crime) is not present in a line-up, eyewitnesses tend to ____.
pick an individual who looks most like the perpetrator
In which group is the validity of eyewitness testimony particularly suspect?
Several recommendations have been made to improve eyewitness testimony. Which of the following is one of those recommendations?
tell eye witnesses that the perpetrator might not be in the lineup
Roediger and McDermott have shown that ____.
it is easy to create false memories
When a person has a difficult time in remembering the context in which they heard the information and erroneously attribute it to a different context, ____ has occurred.
source - monitoring error
Under laboratory conditions, participants seem to ____ recall items that have pleasant associations in comparison to items that have unpleasant associations.
According to ____, the way of representing information as it is placed into memory affects the way in which the information may be recalled later.
. Joanne is studying for a psychology test. Based on the results of studies examining context effects, Joanne should get the best test results if she ____.
studies in the testing room
____ refers to the means by which people draw on past knowledge in order to use such knowledge in the present; it refers to the dynamic mechanisms associated with the retention and retrieval of information.
____ refers to a process of memory often employed in memory tasks, in which the person is asked to produce a fact, a word, or other item from memory.
____ refers to a process of memory often employed in memory tasks, in which the person may be asked to identify from among several choices a fact, a word, or other item from memory.
Fill-in-the-blank tests can be memory tasks, which require that students employ primarily the memory process of ____.
Multiple-choice exams can be memory tasks, which require that students employ primarily the memory process of ____.
____ recall refers to a type of recall task used in experiments in which the participant recalls items in the exact order in which they were presented.
____ recall refers to a type of recall task used in experiments in which the participant recalls items in any order he or she chooses.
____ recall refers to a type of recall task used in experiments in which items are presented in pairs, and during recall, the participant is cued with one member of each pair and is asked to recall the mate of each cued item.
Max is a volunteer for a psychological experiment. He has been asked to listen carefully to a list of words. He has been instructed to try to remember as many of these words as possible in any order and to write them down after a signal. Max is participating in a ____ recall task.
Melissa volunteered to participate in a psychological experiment. She has been instructed to listen carefully to a list of words, because later she will have to remember as many of these words as possible in the exact order in which they were presented. Melissa is participating in a ____ recall task.
After a test, Jill identified and then learned the information that she had forgotten for the test. She noted that there was a "saving" in that the information was learned faster the second time. Jill has discovered the concept of ____.
The ____ suggests that both implicit and explicit memory play a role in every response.
____ memory refers to a form of memory retrieval in which a person consciously acts to recall or recognize particular information.
____ memory refers to a form of memory retrieval in which a person uses recalled or recognized information without consciously being aware of doing so.
Participants in an experiment read over a list of words. A second unrelated task (a filler task) is then completed. For the final task, participants rate letter strings as words or non-words. The results indicate that participants in general were faster at identifying words from the first list. The faster response is best described as being a result of ____.
Anytime we read, we unconsciously and effortlessly remember the meanings of particular words and even how to read. These are examples of everyday tasks that primarily involve ____ memory.
Recall memory is to ____ as recognition memory is to ____.
expressive knowledge; receptive knowledge
researchers should consider culture when developing tests of memory because _____
familiarity with an object an affect recall for it
Suppose you were researching memory function in an isolated group of individuals that eschews contemporary culture and technology. You need to create a memory task that is appropriate for 12- to 16-year-olds and wonder what words you should include. You would be well-advised to ____.
consider items and concepts with which they are already familiar in creating the list
According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), ____ is/are structures and ____ is/are the information stored in the structures.
___ refers to a concept that cannot be directly measured or observed but that may be used as a mental representation for understanding the workings of a psychological phenomenon.
A hypothetical construct
according to Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), the ____ store refers to the memory store characterized as having the shortest duration for memory storage.
The ____ store refers to a sensory register for the fleeting storage of discrete visual images, usually resembling whatever is being represented.
Louise put a light bulb on a lamp, turned it on, and looked at it directly. Immediately after that, she looked away and she could still "see" the bulb shining brightly. This visual persistence is an example of the type of information held in the ____ store.
the initial discovery of the existence of the iconic store is credited to ____.
During his experiments studying iconic store, Sperling flashed an array of stimuli (e.g., letters and/or numbers) for approximately 50 milliseconds on a screen. If participants are then asked to recall all symbols presented, they would be performing a(n) ____ procedure.
During his experiments studying iconic store, Sperling would flash an array of stimuli (e.g., letters and/or numbers) for approximately 50 milliseconds on a screen. If participants are then asked to recall symbols presented on the third row, they would be performing a(n) ____ procedure.
Suppose you are participating in a study, in which stimuli are flashed on a screen. Following the presentation of the first stimulus, a second stimulus is presented in the same location on the screen and it effectively "erases" the original stimulus. This is called ____.
backward visual masking
According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), the ____ store has a modest capacity a duration of only a few seconds.
As tested by a psychologist, the capacity of Jerry's short-term store appears to be 11 items. Jerry's short-term memory capacity is ____.
The capacity of our immediate, short-term store for a wide range of items appears to be ____, plus or minus two items.
According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), the ____ store refers to the memory store characterized as having the greatest capacity for storing information and the longest duration for memory storage.
How long does unrehearsed material typically remain in the short-term store?
People's names, where we keep things, and humorous incidents from our childhood are all examples of information held in our ____ store.
very long-term storage of information, such as knowledge of a foreign language, is called ____.
the ____ suggests that memory does not comprise three, or even any specific number of separate stores, but rather it varies along a continuous dimension in terms of depth of encoding.
levels of processing framework
According to the original levels-of-processing framework, if you were shown lists of semantically related words (e.g., dog and animal), rhyming words (e.g., dog and log), and unrelated words (e.g., dog and sun), the words most easily recalled would be ____.
semantically related words
According to the levels-of-processing framework, the deeper the level of processing of information, ____.
the higher the probability that the information will be retrieved
Participants were shown a list of words and asked to judge whether each word described them or not. Recall was highest for the items that reportedly described the individual. This demonstrates ___.
self reference effect
___ memory refers to a portion of memory that may be viewed as a specialized part of long-term memory, which holds only the most recently activated portion of long-term memory, and which moves these activated elements into and out of short-term memory.
Which model of memory consists of four main elements: central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer?
Which component of the working memory model is important for processing both spatial information and images?
Which part of the working memory model is well suited for handling verbal information and for rehearsing information?
Which component of the working memory model is responsible for coordinating attentional activities and regulating the flow of information?
Which part of the working memory model allows for an interface that can integrate different types of information from various systems?
Sophie's working memory is having difficulty integrating information so that the information makes sense to Sophie. What component is most likely to be causing this problem?
her episodic buffer
John participates in an experiment in which he is presented with letters on a screen. Every time he sees an "X", he is supposed to report the letter that appeared three letters earlier. This is an example of a(n) ____ task.
Verifying whether a sentence is true or not and having to remember the last word for each sentence is most likely testing ____.
The difference between semantic and episodic knowledge is that
semantic knowledge is what we know in the way of facts, whereas episodic knowledge is what we know about experiences linked to particular time referents.
____ memory refers to memory for facts that are not unique to us and that are not recalled in any particular temporal context.
____ memory stores personally experienced events or episodes.
According to Endel Tulving, if you need to remember that you saw a friend yesterday at the library, you will draw upon a(n) ____ memory.
According to Endel Tulving, if you need to remember the name of the friend that you saw yesterday at the library, you will draw on a(n) ____ memory.
qhich model, based on neuroscientific research, suggests that episodic and semantic memories are distinct from one another and that they activate different parts of the brain?
emispheric Encoding/Retrieval Asymmetry (HERA Model)
As applied to a model of memory, a ____ is a set of labeled relations between nodes.
Which memory system is often called implicit memory and includes memory for how to do various tasks or operations?
non declarative memory
The ____ refers to a conceptual model of memory in which the cognitive manipulation of multiple operations occurs simultaneously.
parallel-distributed processing model
A ____ refers to a juncture within a memory network.
Some cognitive psychologists have asserted that the ____ effect refers to the activation of a node by another node in the same network, due to the process of spreading activation.
Which model of memory consists of nodes and links between the nodes, and suggests that knowledge is represented in the connections between the nodes?
connectionist model of memory
A(n) ____ refers to a node that activates a connected node in a network.
Debbie participates in a memory experiment and performs exceptionally well. When asked how she could recall long strings of material such as rows and columns of numbers, she says that she memorized numbers by transforming them into dates, and then thinking about what she had done that day. Debbie seems to be a ____.
Allison is a peculiar thinker. She can remember a great amount of information, in large part because she converts sounds and words into visual impressions and because she experiences a word's taste and weight. Allison seems to make use of ____.
____ are persons who use memory-enhancing techniques for greatly improving their memory or who have a distinctive sensory or cognitive ability to remember information.
____ refers to the experiencing of a sensation in a sensory modality different from the sense that is physically stimulated.
Which process involves using a number of different retrieval cues in order to retrieve memories that appear to have been forgotten?
____ amnesia refers to an inability to recall events that occur after whatever trauma caused a memory loss.
___ amnesia refers to an inability to recall events that occur before the trauma that causes a memory loss.
In retrograde amnesia, the memories that return typically do so starting ____.
from the more distant past and progressing up to the time of the trauma.
Retrograde amnesia may be viewed as a problem in ____ information in/from memory.
____ amnesia refers to the inability to recall events that happened when we were very young.
____ refers to the severe loss of explicit memory, usually affecting semantic memory more than procedural memory.
___ knowledge refers to the understanding and awareness of how to perform particular tasks or skills (i.e., "knowing how").
Jimmy knows how to ride a bicycle. This is an example of a task that involves ____ knowledge.
____ memory refers to a memory system for knowledge of how to perform particular tasks or skills.
____ knowledge involves "knowing that" and taps factual information, such as the terms in a psychology textbook.
Jennifer has an excellent understanding of geography. This is an example of ____ knowledge.
Raphael has amnesia. When specifically asked to remember particular information, Raphael does poorly. When indirectly measured on the same information he shows signs of learning. This shows that his ____ is impaired by amnesia while ____ is not impaired.
explicit memory; implicit memory
In evaluating the causes of neuropathologies, scientists look for ____ or situations in which people with different kinds of neuropathological conditions show opposite patterns of deficits.
d. double dissociations
At present, the only definitive test for Alzheimer's disease involves ____.
an analysis of brain tissue after death
atients who have sustained damage to the ____ have difficulty in storing new information or retrieving old memories from their
Patients whose ____ has been damaged can perform well on long-term memory tasks but have trouble keeping information in their short-term memory.
H.M. underwent experimental brain surgery in hopes of treating severe epilepsy. Following damage to his hippocampus, he was unable to ____.
remember events occurring after the surgery
A person with isolated brain damage affecting only the hippocampus is most likely to have ____.
The long-term storage declarative information is governed by the ____.
Procedural memory seems to depend most on the ____.
A person with damage to the cerebellum might have problems with ____.
Aricept® may slow the progression of Alzheimer's because it slows destruction of the neurotransmitter ____ in the brain.
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