Have multiple lanes, two or more lanes, going in the same direction, Have barriers sometimes a guardrail, concrete barrier or grassy median to divide opposing traffic, Have interchanges to control access at certain locations where a driver can enter and exit, cross traffic is not present because of interchanges, Prohibit pedestrians, bicyclists and slow-moving vehicles, Are designed to help drivers anticipate conditions ahead, Reduce collisions with fixed objects by design, Have a low frequency of collisions, but may have a high severity rate when a collision occurs because of higher speeds. Rumble strips installed at the road edge to alert drivers that they are drifting off the
roadway onto the shoulder or median, acting as countermeasures to driving off the roadway because of drowsiness or inattention, Redesign of median barriers, Breakaway sign support posts, New design guard rails with ends angled away from roadway and buried, Vinyl crash barrels filled with liquid or sand and placed at bridge heads and major
decision points, Reflective signs or delineators mounted near the edge of a roadway to indicate the
roadway alignment and aid in night or poor visibility driving, Mile markers located off the shoulder used as reference points along a route, Protected left and right turn bays, Collector/distributor lanes on high speed, high density highways to separate slower moving entering/exiting traffic from through traffic,Message signs to alert drivers to problems
Maintain safe following interval, Check highway and traffic conditions ahead, to the sides and behind, Select a safe gap in traffic, Signal, Check mirror blind spot in direction of lane change, Adjust speed and steer into lane, Cancel signal, Adjust speed to flow of traffic, Check mirrors for following traffic,When changing lanes, change one lane at a time. Do not cross several lanes at once. Adjust speed to the flow of traffic once in the new lane. typically carry a high volume of traffic with many hazards involved and can be of varying speeds (25 - 55 mph) depending on the area and location. Urban roadways also include residential areas, More roadway users such as cars, buses, trucks and pedestrians to interact with, Multiple intersections with left and right turn lanes, stop signs and traffic signal lights, City blocks divided by alleys, which create more intersections, Many stores and businesses are present, Public transportation (buses, light rail vehicles and trolleys) is present Traffic that starts and stops frequently, "Rush hour" traffic, Rows of parked vehicles, delivery trucks and blind alleys creating path of travel
restrictions, Parking difficult to locate, Work zones are common and make the area even more congested, Detours due to street maintenance, emergencies or special events (i.e. parades, concerts), Traffic hazards are closer to you than they are in rural areas and can quickly block your path.
Increase following distance, Search ahead, to the sides and rear, Move slightly to the right and signal early for turns, stops and lane changes, Look ahead, slow down as you approach, do
not block intersection if light turns red, Drive with the flow of traffic, stay within
the speed limit, adjust speed and position
ahead of time for any hazards, Select the lane with the fewest number of hazards and traffic flow is smoothest, Move to the left portion of your lane and be alert for possible conflicts, yield to other vehicles if narrow roadway, Search ahead for pedestrians, yield to them at all times, When approaching a stopped vehicle from behind, slow down and do not pass until you are sure there are no pedestrians crossing in front of it, Slow, move to the right, sound your horn or flash your headlights.
When driving where there are multiple lanes of traffic, you may use different lanes at different
times, Select the lane with the fewest number of potential hazards. If your front zone closes move to another lane. The right lane is usually for slower traffic and the left lane for passing traffic, but sometimes traffic turning left can cause the left lane to be congested, Avoid driving next to other vehicles on multi-lane roads, Another driver may crowd your lane position, try to change lanes, and pull into your lane space. Increase or reduce your
vehicle speed to stay clear of the other vehicle that may be trying to enter your lane space, Always drive in the lane that applies to you, as indicated by the arrows on the pavement, This keeps traffic flowing and helps you get to where you are going easier.
Some left turns in business areas can be made mid-block from a shared turning lane. To use these lanes, search ahead for oncoming traffic and be prepared to
yield to any vehicle whose path drivers may cross. Drivers who want to make left-hand turns onto a roadway can also use a shared turning lane and wait for a gap in traffic. Position within lane is important on turns - While it is always important to move well to the
left or right when preparing to make a turn, it is especially important in heavy traffic when pedestrians in the crosswalk may cause you to stop. By moving as far left as possible, stopping may be avoided. Using a shared left turn lane to enter a driveway, Shared left turn lanes are marked with solid and broken yellow lines on both sides of the lane and white turn arrows that indicate that drivers traveling in either direction can use the lane. Shared left turn lanes are intended only for vehicles making left turns, As a rule, drivers should not travel more than about 200 feet while slowing to stop or turn
across traffic or accelerating to enter traffic, When traffic is so heavy that a safe gap in oncoming traffic is not available, drivers can move out of the left travel lane, slow, or if necessary stop, and then complete the left turn when there is a safe gap in traffic.
carry a low volume of traffic and speed limits range from (25 - 55 mph).
Extra caution should be taken when driving on rural roadways because they are often not designed for high-speed travel like urban roadways and may present unfamiliar hazards to drivers. Drivers may find that driving on rural roadways may easily reduce attention to the road, and a sudden hazard on the road may then become dangerous. Roads may be narrow, have a paved, graveled, or dirt surface, and may be smooth or poorly maintained. Sometimes surfaces may be soft from compacted gravel or dirt, Shoulders may be narrow or uneven. Guard rails may be present, Very few roadway signs and traffic signals. Pavement markings may not be present, Often have steep hills and curves. Blind curves are also present, May commonly have open bridge gratings, steel bridges, and uncontrolled railroad crossings, Typically have uncontrolled intersections, Many have different kinds of obstacles such as animals, slow moving vehicles, and debris, At night, there is a lack of adequate lighting since there are few street lights.
Gravel or dirt, Dust, Narrow bridges and roads, Open bridge gratings or steel bridges, Vision limitations (i.e., wooded areas, corn fields or other tall crops), Steep hills and curves, Highway-railroad grade crossings without lights or crossing gates, Uncontrolled intersections (i.e., notcontrolled by yield or stop signs) Reduce your speed and increase your
following distance. Gravel and dirt can
affect steering and vehicle control, Use low beam headlights, slow down and
increase your following distance, Look for narrow bridge signs and be prepared to stop for oncoming traffic, Slow down and increase your following
distance Reduce speed, keep a firm grip on the steering wheel, and increase following distance, Stay alert and slow down, Slow down, move to the right side of the road and watch for oncoming vehicles, Slow down, look both ways, and be prepared to stop for a train before crossing the tracks, Approach with caution, slow down and be
prepared to stop for crossing or oncoming
Rural roads typically have many curves. Many crashes occur at curves because the driver is going too fast through the curve. Searching as far ahead as possible and identifying the existence of a curve will provide more time to evaluate and control the level of risk, Does the roadway curve to the left or right?, What is the sharpness of the curve, lane width, shoulder condition, posted speed,
traffic volume?, Is the curve on a grade, up or down hill? Is the field of view restricted?, Answering these questions and checking traffic to the rear enables a driver to determine the best speed and lane position for negotiating a curve, This is one more situation where driving with headlights on during daytime hours
helps manage the level of risk since the vehicle is more visible to oncoming drivers.