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Western Civilization 23-3 - 23-5
Terms in this set (48)
known as one of the worlds greatest military geniuses. Went to military school in Corsica Became a military leader at age 16 by starting off as a lieutenant in the artillery
When a military leader forces the government out of power and becomes a dictator.
Coup d' etat is a term used to describe a sudden seizure of power from the existing state; in the case of France, it is used to describe Napoleon's seizure of power upon his return from Egypt.
Vote of the people approved of napoleons new constitution
Government run public schools to train a government officials. Concordat agreement with Pope Pius VII the recognized the influence of the church but rejected church control.
An agreement signed between the church as Pope Pius VII and Napoleon, where the government recognized the importance and influence of the church yet did not grant them power to help in national affairs
Napoleons name for his set of laws, to get France back in order, and also gave all the people rights and regulations.
The Napoleonic Code refers to the comprehensive system of laws created by Napoleon for the French state; these laws, although uniform and more just than previous laws, also eliminated many freedoms and reinstated slavery in France's colonies.
Battle of Trafalgar
The war with Britain when Napoleon fought against the Great Britain Navy, and lost. The British commander, Horatio Nelson, brought an amazing strategy, which split the French naval force into two and captured many French fleet. It made it impossible for Napoleon to invade Great Britain again
How did Napoleon become ahero in France?
The National Convention told a young Napoleon to defend the delegates. Napoleon greeted thousands of royalists with a cannonade and within minutes, attackers fled the field in panic and confusion. He was known as the hero of the hour.
What did Napoleon considerhis greatest triumph indomestic policy?
His Napoleonic Code
How was Napoleon able tocontrol the countriesneighboring the FrenchEmpire?
He fought them and in a series of brilliant battles, he crushed the opponent and forced the other countries to sign peace treaties.
In your opinion, was Napoleon thecreator or the creation of his times?
He was the creator because he was doing things that some people had not done before and he succeded in some of them
Napoleon had to deal with forcesboth inside and outside the French Empire. In yourjudgment, which area was more important to control?
Inside the French Empire because he is the ruler and he should keep his area safe and peaceful and going right instead of controlling forces outside of France even though that was also important.
If you had been a member of thebourgeoisie, would you have been satisfied with theresults of Napoleon's actions?Explain.
No, because even though he did things that were beneficial to France, he made three very stupid mistakes that cost him everything and he eventually was exiled away and left to die.
Closed all the ports to stop trade and communication from happening between Europe and great Britain
Napoleon's name for his set of blockades
Spanish peasant fighters that fought in small groups. Used ambush technique
War against Spain where he attacked Spain and replaced their king. People were afraid that he would attack their church so guerrellias got together in small groups and attacked French troops. Lasted six years
Burning crops and killing livestock so the enemy had nothing to eat
Battle in Belgium where European allies were fighting against Napoleon, British and Prussian forces chased him from the field and had him sent to Saint Helena but was exiled back to Elba where he died.
Waterloo was a village near which Napoleon's last battle, and the battle that ultimately sealed his fate, was fought. Napoleon's Hundred Days were ended by his defeat at Waterloo; he was ultimately locked in the British island-prison of St. Helena, where he died.
Period Where he came back from Elba and try to take over the rest of Europe and lost
Which of Napoleon's mistakeswas the most serious? Why?
Out of the three mistakes he made, I think the worst was when he tried to take over Russia, because during that period of time, he lost over 10,000 of his men and he stayed in Russia for an extra month, so he himself was suffering from the weather and lack of food. This also cost him because it led to Waterloo where he was exiled to Elba and died.
How did Great Britain combatNapoleon's naval blockade?
Great Britain responded with their own set of blockades and still ignored Napoleon's blockade's and smuggled goods into France anyway.
Why did Napoleon havetrouble fighting the enemyforces in the Peninsular War?
his fleet was split into 2 and captured and he was forced to give up all of his plans to invade Great Britain and was unable to invade Great Britain.
Why was Napoleon's delay ofthe retreat from Moscow sucha great blunder?
He had decided to stay longer during the winter months, the weather was extremely harsh and he and his army were not prepared. Due to the scorched-earth policy, they also had no food to eat or drink. Napoleon lost many of his men to do harsh weather conditions, starvation, or desertion
Why did people in other Europeancountries resist Napoleon's efforts to build an empire?
They didn't want him taking over their country and due to Napoleon's mistakes, he never did take over and he lost.
Napoleon had nochoice but to invade Russia. Do you agree with thisstatement? Why or why not?
I do not agree with this statement at all. Napoleon decided to invade Russia because Russia refused to stop selling grain to Great Britain. Even though he wanted them to stop, there was nothing really that he could do about it but if he HAD to do something about it, then the only choice may have been to invade Russia. He "didn't want to" but because Russia refused to stop selling grain, but he didn't really have much of a choice but to if he wanted them to stop.
Do you think thatNapoleon was a great leader? Explain.
He was an okay leader because he did good things such as put in government run public schools but he also did not so smart things such as allowing slavery again and using his three mistakes which in the end, ended up costing him everything.
Congress of Vienna
It was a series of meetings in Vienna to set up policies to create a new European order (security).
The Congress of Vienna was a series of meetings in Vienna called to set up policies to establish long-lasting peace and stability.
Klemens von Metternich
He was the most influential person, foreign minister of Austria
balance of power
This was a new political situation where all the countries were equally strong, which allowed greater security throughout Europe
The principle that as many as possible of the rulers that Napoleon displayed would be restored to power
It was an agreement between Emperor of Austria and czar of Russia and king of Prussia. They pledge to base their foreign relations on Christian principles. It was aimed at combating the forces of revolution
Concert of Europe
Alliances devised by Metternich to ensure other nations would help out if other revolutions would break I would
What was the overall effect ofMetternich's plan on France?
To surround France so they couldn't take over again and to make all the countries equally strong.
What were the three points ofMetternich's plan for Europe?
Wanted to surround France so they couldn't take over again. Wanted all the countries to be equally strong.
Wanted to put royal families back on the throne.
Why was the Congress ofVienna considered a success?
They eventually set up a new European order
What was the long-term legacyof the Congress of Vienna?
It maintained a balance of power, diminshed the size and power of France, started the spread of Nationalism in Western Europe leading to more revolutions and new nations
From France's point of view, doyou think the Congress of Vienna's decisions were fair?
Yes, because in the end, they did many things that benefited France such as maintain a balance of power in France.
Why did liberals and conservativesdiffer over who should have power?
If the liberals had the power, they would create new things and ideas but if the conservatives had power, they would want everything to go back to the way it used to be.
What do you think is meant by thestatement that the French Revolution let the "genie out ofthe bottle"?
It means that everything is fine until someone does something that leads to something bigger that can have both good and bad consequences. In the genie in the bottle case, I think everything is okay until someone lets the genie out. He gives you three wishes which you must be super precise about because you will not always get what you wish for so what happens may be good or bad, but there is always a trick or consequence. In the French Revolution, "the genie", is the idea of democracy where people should be allowed to overthrow their rulers.
What reforms did Napoleon introduce?
The Congress of Vienna limited the French power and restored the French monarchy that had been overthrown during the French Revolution.
What steps did Napoleon take to create an empire in Europe?
Metternich had three goals at the congress: first, he wanted to prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries; second, he wanted to restore a balance of power, so that no country would be a threat to others; and third, he wanted to restore Europe's royal families to the thrones they held before the Napoleonic Wars.
What factors led to Napoleon's defeat in Russia?
The Napoleon Code • Employment based on merit • Public education • Public works and urban renewal • Got rid of the French Revolutionary Calendar • Privilege was not based on birth
Why were the European allies able to defeat Napoleon in 1814 andagain in 1815?
Napoleon defeated in battle all the land powers of Europe, and thanked them to supply troops to support his armies. Forced several nations to adopted constitutions based on that of France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain. He thanked the conquered nations to reform their legal codes.
What were Metternich's three goals at the Congress of Vienna?
Napoleon did not prepare his army for the winter in Russia. He also had an over extended supply line, the scorched earth withdrawal by the Russians, the refusal of the Russians to engage in a decisive battle, and bad weather.
How did the Congress of Vienna ensure peace in Europe?
First, they were unified; Prussia, Russia, and England were all on the field at the same time. Second, Napoleon was worn down; his army by 1812 was largely composed of unwilling draftees, and after 1810 Napoleon's skill as a general appears to have deteriorated.
Long-Term Effects of The French Revolution and Napoleon
• Conservative reaction• Decline in French power• Spread of Enlightenment ideas• Growth of nationalism• Revolutions in Latin America
Copy the chart ofdates and events inNapoleon's careerinto your notebook.For each event, drawan arrow up ordown to showwhether Napoleon gained or lost power because of the event.
1. Defense of National Convention
4. Winning Battles
6. Large Empire
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