The Human Body in Health & Disease by Thibodeau and Patton, Chapter 18, Nutrition and Metabolism
Terms in this set (43)
all the processes involved in taking in nutrients and assimilating and utilizing them.
any disorder of the intake, assimilation, or utilization of nutrients.
the transformation of nutrients into energy and chemical building blocks.
the breaking down of nutrients into basic materials and energy
the building up of chemicals and compounds from more basic materials.
secretes bile to aid in mechanical digestion of food, and performs other functions crucial to the body's metabolism.
the preferred energy food of the body
Carbohydrates are broken down into _____, which is further broken down (catabolized) for energy.
three steps in glucose catabolism
glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport system
_____ contains a high amount of energy that can be used for cellular work.
ATP is broken down to _____ and energy is released for work
the storage form of glucose
reactions that join glucose molecules together to form glycogen
_____ causes glucose to leave the blood and enter the cells where it is metabolized.
are primarily energy foods
if cells have inadequate glucose, the body starts catabolizing _____.
Fats not catabolized for energy are anabolized to form _____ and are stored in adipose tissue.
_____ is important in the production of steroid hormones and the plasma membranes of cells.
too much cholesterol in the blood
_____ anabolism is much more common than catabolism.
_____ are assembled into complex protein compounds.
The nine amino acids required in our diets are called _____.
the number of amino acids humans need
the number of amino acids humans can make and don't need from their diet
organic molecules needed in small quantities for normal metabolism
Vitamin molecules attach to _____ and help them work properly
The _____ vitamins can be stored in the liver.
_____vitamins cannot be stored.
_____results from a deficiency of vitamin C which impairs healthy collagen production in the body.
inorganic elements or salts required in nerve conduction, muscle contraction, and enzyme function
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the number of calories of heat that must be produced per hour by catabolism to keep the body alive, awake, and comfortably warm
total metabolic rate (TMR)
the total amount of energy used by the body per day
Genetic metabolic disorders
_____ involve a deficiency or absence of a particular enzyme.
In _____, the deficiency of insulin prevents glucose uptake and use by cells interfering with metabolism.
eating disorder involving chronic refusal to eat (with underlying emotional cause)
eating disorder involving binge eating followed by purging and/or food withdrawal (with underlying emotional cause)
protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM)
_____results from a deficiency of calories and /or protein.
result of chronic over-intake of calories often due to medical issues or underlying emotional causes
On a food label, in general, _____ and below means "low" (low fat for example).
On a food label, in general, _____ and above means "high" (high sugar for example).
On a food label, in general, _____ and below means "a moderate amount".
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