Upgrade to remove ads
AAAD 421 Exam 3
Terms in this set (65)
With the arrival of European colonialism, new linguae francae emerged by what processes?
some developed by pidginization of local vernacular languages and others by pidginization of European languages along the coast.
How does a pidgin language develop?
-under certain socioeconomic conditions along trade routes and coastlines
-particularly when several groups with different languages and no common lingua franca are forced to communicate in the presence of a newly arrives dominant languages like that of seafaring traders and colonists.
What is a pidgin? What is a pidgin characteristically used for?
-only used as a second language for restricted communication/ restricted to a narrow range of functions and domains
-speakers of pidgins tend to have one other fully fledged language as mother tongue, so they are bilingual at least
-'reduced' in vocab
-often said to 'lack' grammar
-'mixed' with words and structural elements from surrounding local languages
-has no native speakers
why are pidgins stigmatized?
-they are often seen as marginal languages, as corrupt, bad, broken variants of the standard languages on which they appear to be based
-they are also falsely considered to be the result of imperfect language learning
-they have a limited vocab and they are used in limited functions and domains
-they appear to have the majority of their vocab taken from the dominant, often European, standard language on which they are said to be "based" (a misleading description) and to have taken the best part of what grammar there is from one or more of the local vernacular languages
Explain why pidgins are linguistic systems in their own right.
-there are elements in their structure that are not easily traceable to any of the languages immediately involved in their creation
however, they can't compete structurally, functionally nor socially with full fledged languages
why might pidgins be short lived and cease to exist? why might they persist/change?
if the particular socioeconomic situation changes which had originally brought about their creation
or they might persist or change when the situation changes
how might pidgins accommodate changes in a situation such as when one colonial power takes over the territory from another colonial power leading to a change of dominant language?
by relexification: replacing one source of their lexical 'base' by another, for example, French by English.
what is relexification?
replacing one source of a pidgin's lexical 'base' by another, for example, French by English.
this allows pidgins to accommodate changes in a socioeconomic situation such as when one colonial power takes over the territory from another colonial power leading to a change of dominant language
what is creolisation?
when a pidgin eventually becomes a mother tongue/ native language for sections of the population (ppl acquire it as their first language)
Give an example of language birth.
When a pidgin undergoes creolisation, in which it becomes the first language of a generation of speakers and becomes elaborated in terms of vocab and grammar. Then it is a fully fledged language, no longer restricted in function.
what type of populations and regions did traditional dialectology rely on for study? why?
-relatively homogenous rural areas
-elderly people that were often formally uneducated and mostly untravelled
These people were therefore considered to speak 'purer' dialectal variants than younger speakers who had been to school and to bigger cities.
Name four pidgins and describe them.
-Petit-Negre: French based pidgin in Ivory Coast and former French possessions along the West African coast
-Ewondo Populaire: Ewondo based pidgin used for trade in Cameroon
-Galgaliya: Arabic based pidgin in north-eastern Nigeria
-Fanagalo/Fanakalo: Xhosa-based English pidgin used in the South African mines
Can pidgins and a creole lanugage with the same language 'base' coexist, together with the language which is said to be their 'base'? If so, provide an example.
Sierra Leone has Standard British English, Standard Sierra Leone English, Krio (an English-based creole) and West African Pidgin English.
This situation is referred to as a post-creole continuum
what are acrolects?
a term used to refer to the highest varieties on the post-creole continuum
what are mesolects?
a term used to refer to the intermediate varieties on the post-creole continuum
what are basilects?
a term used to refer to the lowest varieties on the post-creole continuum
what is decreolisation?
occurs when standard varieties maintain their influence on the creole and thus allow for a 'target' for moving sociolinguistically up the ladder.
results in diglossia (recognising socially relevent higher and lower variants)
What are the two main theories regarding how pidgins emerge?
Describe the monogenesis theory.
all pidgins emerged from one single proto-pidgin and only subsequently become diversified depending on which other languages they were in contact with.
Describe the polygenesis theory.
pidgins emerged independently form each other over and over again but always 'based' on some language of wider communication and commerce and spoken aboard ships which sailed the seven seas
what happens when 2 speech communities come into contact?
capitulation, mediation, or combination
what is mediation?
-Use a 3rd already existing language
-A & B use language C
-The native language of neither group
-Becomes a "lingua franca"
-Business and diplomacy
Koine Greek: Mediterranean world
French: diplomacy in the 1600s-1900s
Hausa: trade in W. Africa
what is capitulation?
One group learns the language of the other.
A uses B or B uses A.
May be in certain domains only.
May be temporary—an exchange student
what popular explanation/support for the monogenesis hypothesis is challenged by Derek Bickerton?
-support for the monogenesis hypothesis often comes from observation of relexification, but this does not happen in all cases of pidgins and creoles, so it cannot account for the far-reaching similarities of structure of all known pidgins and creoles.
What does Bickerton believe about the origins of pidgins and creoles?
Bickerton believe that pidginisation is second language learning with restricted input and creolisation is first-language acquisition also with restricted input.
He claims that the shared grammatical structure of pidgins and creoles is similar to the innate universal language acquisition apparatus of the child. With the restricted input provided by a pidgin speaking environment, children will develop their innate universal lanaguage acquisition apparatus to function as the full fledged grammar of the language they are about to acquire, a creole.
What is the Fanagalo/Fanakalo pidgin? what is it also known as?
Xhosa-based English pidgin used in the South African mines
aka Mine Kaffir/ Kitchen Kaffir
how did modern dialectology expand from traditional dialectology?
Modern dialectology expands the geographical preoccupation to include social dialects (sociolects) which are more met within urban agglomerations where regional background becomes less and less important.
Give an example of an under-researched field of urban dialectology in Africa?
the creolisation of pidgins like the Petit-Negre and West African Pidgin (Wes Cos) in the major cities along the West African coast
Describe the newly emerging sociolects of juvenile delinquents and street gangs. Give three examples.
-semi-educated jobless youth
-often imitated by more educated school children and students
-ex: Sheng in Nairobi, Nouchi in Abidjan, and 'the Black Urban venaculars' in South Africa (Tsotsitaal, Iscamtho, Pretoria Sotho, etc) which involve heavy code switching and thereby tend to 'mix' various linguistic systems, among them various standardized languages of African and non-African origin.
More often than not, pidgins have arisen from a desire to:
communicate for business purposes
One might argue that pidgins are not authentic languages because pidgins:
A. do not possess a vocabulary
B. are used only in a limited number of situations (i.e. they lack functional range)
C. are not examples of communicative innovation
D. lack descriptive grammatical rules
-are used only in a limited number of situations (they lack a functional range)
A pidgin becomes a Creole when it (the pidgin):
is acquired by children as their native language
In a resolution regarding "Ebonics," the Oakland School Board declared that the speech of African American children is a linguistic system:
distinct from standard English
Tsotsitaal is translated as
the language of 'thugs or criminals' (in Sophiatown)
The Oakland Education Board promised to provide funds for:
A. developing appropriate programs to help Ebonics speakers acquire SAE
B. teaching foreign language-type classes in Ebonics to all students who request it, regardless of race
C. hiring speakers of West African languages to teach in the schools
D. All of the above, (A)-(C).
developing appropriate programs to help Ebonics speakers acquire SAE
where does the origin of Tsotsitaal go back to?
the 1886 gold rush in Transvaal and the subsequent influx of mine workers speaking Southern Bantu languages.
Tsotsitaal was created from the need to communicate with eachother.
The structure and vocabulary of Tsotsitaal is drawn on what languages?
Afrikaans, English and Southern Bantu languages
Presently, Tsotsitaal is a moribund (almost extinct) language. why?
The dispersal of a vibrant speech community after the razing of Sophiatown in 1955 by the South African apartheid government.
Urban dialects are mainly spoken by which social groups?
what is social stratification?
social stratification implies a hierarchical relationship of higher and lower in terms of prestige, power and privileges (status and roles)
what can be used as a reliable criterion for ethnic identity? what is group-internal vs group-external ethnic identity?
language, because ethnic and linguistic differences often coincide bc people with different ethnic backgrounds often also speak different languages or language varieties.
group internal: by their language behavior, speakers identify themselves as members of the same group as much as they are identified by others as belonging to a different group
Give an example that demonstrates that ethnically different groups may share the same language language/patterns of language behavior, but a shared language does not prevent societies from severe internal conflicts, civil war and even genocide.
Hutu and Tutsi in Ruanda and Burundi or the various Somali-speaking clans
What can a language reflect about its speaker?
own individual pattern of speech (idiolect)
what is an idiolect?
the linguistic system associated with a single speaker
it is an inseperable part of and key to the personality and individuality of a speaker
Heine and Nurse 302-303
Does Africa have more pidgins or more creoles?
Africa is particularly rich in pidgins, extended and otherwise, but relatively few creoles.
Is Swahili a pidgin?
NO, but there are pidginized forms of Swahili (the pidginization of Swahili is relatively recent)
why do some people (falsely) think that Swahili is a pidgin?
-has a lot of borrowings
-its widespread use as a lingua franca
-it has stress-accent rather than tone, so some think that it is not really related to the languages spoken nearby
-people may only have encountered it as a second language learned imperfectly, because it is widely spoken in many countries, but the Swahili only occupy a narrow coastal strip and a few islands along the coast of East Africa, so there are few chances of running into a native speaker in the general Swahili speaking area.
Give evidence that Swahili is not a pidgin.
-there have been native speakers for as long as there have been for any other Bantu language
-there is a long tradition of written Swahili
-the explanation for Swahili's stress system can be explained
Swahili has a long history as a lingua franca. By what time was Swahili the dominant trade language from the coast inland all the way to eastern Zaire?
the mid nineteenth century
(the German colonists started a policy of using Swahili to communicate, which was continued by the British colonists
Why do some falsely believe that Swahili is a dialect of Arabic?
-contact between the Swahili coastal areas and Arab traders based on the acculturation and conversion to Islam that has taken place over time
-large number of borrowings from Arabic
How many languages are there in Tanzania? How much of the population speaks a Bantu language?
94% of the 15 million speak a Bantu language
As of 1980, 95% spoke Swahili
In what two main East African countries does Swahili flourish?
Kenya and Tanzania (and on into Zaire)
What are two striking facts about Swahili?
-it has many borrowings from Arabic, Hindi and English
-it has an extremely regular prominence system of penultimate stress while around it many tone languages are spoken
Give an example of a pidgin in Liberia. Describe it.
-only African pidgin with an American English past
-there are several complex varieties, which is amazing given its small area and relatively small population.
What is the only African pidgin that has an American English past?
Contrast Liberian English and other colonial pidgins.
Liberian English was never used in an official colonial situation of the same sort as other colonial pidgins.
Liberian English has an American English past, contrasting with the nearby English variety Krio of Sierra Leone, even though both are varieties of repatriated Africans (sent back to their country)
Liberia was founded by the American Colonization Society who, after buying land in Liberia, helped the first group of former American slaves "Settlers' to arrive in 1822. These people and their followers were the source of "Settler English". These settlers had learned English in America and brought back their 19th century variety. But English was already spoken on the coast before they arrived. Several Kru people had a history of serving as crew on passing ships as part of the slave trade. These 'Kruman' eventually returned to their villages, from whom came the second English Variety in Libia, Kru Pidgin English.
The third English variety in Liberia came from plantations in the interior
Quiz 11 Batibo 6
Language shift occurs when
people abandon their language in favor of another language
Language shift may be attributed to what three main things?
A. changes in speakers attitudes and values
B. repressive policies towards minority languages
C. reduction of domains of use of a language due to encroachment of another language.
what does the rate of language shift depend on?
the amount of pressure from the dominant language, on the one hand, and the amount of resistance from the minority language, on the other hand.
T/F: The rate of language shift depends on the amount of pressure from the dominant language, on the one hand, and the amount of resistance from the minority language, on the other hand.
In multilingual societies, which of the following is not a phase in language shift?
A. Relative monolingualism
B. Bilingualism with L1 predorminance
C. external setting
D. Restrictive use/competence in L1
c. external setting
Which of the following languages in Africa has attracted second language speakers because of its association with Islam?
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP HUMAN GEO TEST- Language
Linguistics 101 Final Exam
First 1/2 of chapter 8
English Across the Globe
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
PSYC 432 Final Exam
LING 527 Final Exam
AAAD 421 Exam 3- copy 2
LING 527 Ch 8 and 11