Unit 5 - Honors World History
Terms in this set (53)
English philosopher & Enlightenment thinker who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
popularized during the Enlightenment, the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
Enlightenment thinker & politician who wrote the Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
Signed in 1776 by US revolutionaries; it declared the United States as a free state. Exemplifies Enlightenment ideals
King of France (r.1774-1792 CE). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: First Estate: the clergy, Second Estate: nobility, and Third Estate: commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Tennis Court Oath
vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written
Storming of the Bastille
Paris-July 14, 1789~the medieval fortress and prison known as the Bastille contained only seven prisoners, its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution and it subsequently become an icon of the French Republic
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. Adopted August 26, 1789.
Reign of Terror
(1793-1794) This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed.
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon in 1804 that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property.
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French.
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman and creole: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule. Known for promoting nationalism and independence movements in Latin America
Jose San Martin
Helped Argentina, Chile and Peru win freedom from Spain with rebellions in southern South America
The 18th century privatization of common lands in England, which contributed to the increase in population and the rise of industrialization.
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
This machine played an important role in the mechanization of textile production. Like the spinning wheel, it may be operated by a treadle or by hand. But, unlike the spinning wheel, it can spin more than one yarn at a time. The idea for multiple-yarn spinning was conceived about 1764 by James Hargreaves, an English weaver. In 1770, he patented a machine that could spin 16 yarns at a time. (643, 727)
A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 - allowed for faster production of cotton thread from raw cotton
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable one in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. It was then applied to machinery.
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in city settlements. Greatly increased during the Industrial Revolution due to people seeking work in cities.
Production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks; means quicker and more efficient production of products
Identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
means of production
the tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth; often referred to by Karl Marx as something the worker should control, not private business owners
Children were viewed as laborers throughout the 19th century. Many children worked on farms, small businesses, mills and factories.
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state; written about by Adam Smith in Wealth of Nations
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism.
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudalism. Believed in a classless society.
Wealth of Nations
British philosopher and writer Adam Smith's 1776 book that described his theory on free trade, otherwise known as laissez-faire economics.
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country; led to feelings of independence and anti-colonialism
Otto von Bismarck
German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898) - Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire
A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade in 1854, thus bribing western influence to Japan while showing American might. The unfair Treaty of Kanagawa created resentment in Japan.
Westernization and industrialization in Japan starting in 1868. Restored the power of the emperor and led to the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate (end of feudalism)
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts.
British entrepreneur and politician involved in the expansion of the British Empire from South Africa into Central Africa. The colonies of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) were named after him.
White Man's Burden
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized; comes from a poem by British poet Rudyard Kipling
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion and racism
Spheres of Influence in China
an area where a foreign nation controlled economic developments such as railroad construction and mining; resulted from China losing the Opium Wars against the British
system of colonial government in which the imperialist power controlled all levels of government and appointed its own officials to govern the colony.
Country with its own government but under the control of an outside power
Wars between Britain and the Qing Empire in the mid-1800s, caused by the Qing government's refusal to trade with Britain. Britain then began to illegally import opium which upset the Chinese and led to Britain declaring war. China lost these wars and Britain and most other European powers were able to develop a strong trade presence throughout China against their wishes.
Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing)
peace treaty signed by China and Great Britain, ending the Opium War but also greatly restricting Chinese control over their own trade with western countries and creating European spheres of influence
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils" the Manchus who were ruling the Qing Dynasty. The rebellion was ended by British troops.
Indian Revolt of 1857
Revolt of Indian soldiers against British officers when they were required to use greased cartridges they suspected were being used to pollute them and cause them to convert to Christianity; the revolt spread across north India
Indian National Congress (INC)
Major Indian political party; began as leading organization of Indian independence movement
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