reoccuring attacks of headaches widely variable in intensity, frequency and duration. commonly unilateral and associated with vomiting, anorexia and nausea.
(migraines) classic migraine
occuring in 12% of sufferers, begins with an aura (20-40m) which restricts blood flow to posterior cortex and causes ischemia in the occipital lobe. can last a few hours or days.
(migraines) cluster migraine
unlilateral pain in the head/face that rarely lasts longer than 2 hours but reoccurs repeatedly for a period of weeks/months.
(migraines) hemiplegic migraine/opthalmologic migraine
rare and include loss of movement of limbs and eyes.
headache associated with neurological disease
tumours, infection, vascular malformations, and serve hypertension. characteristics/locations vary according to cause.
most common type of headache; result from sustained contraction of the muscles of the scalp/neck caused by stress/tension. pain is steady, tight, squeezing or pressing. can be accompanied by anxiety, dizziness, and bright spots in front of eyes.
nonmigrainous vascular headaches
associated with dilation of the cranial arteries. most common causes are fever, anoxia, anemia, high altitude, physical effort, food/chemical agents.
treatment of headaches
acute attack ergotamine compounds (produce contriction of cerebral arteries with reduces dilation), muscle relaxants, minor tranquiliers and improvement of posture.
the invasion of the body by disease-producing microorganisms and the reaction of the tissues to their presence and to toxins generated by them. usually spread from else where in the body but can also be introduced directly (trauma, fracture, surgury).
(infections) processes of neural cell death (5)
1) may interfere with blood supply to neurons
2) may disturb glucose/oxygen metabolism
3) may alter the characteristics of neural cell membranes (altering their electrical properties, etc).
4) formulation of pus (changes composition of ECF; altering functioning and increases pressure on the brain)
5) compresses the brain tissue resulting in dysfunction
symptoms of cerebral infections (2)
1) generalized symptoms of increased intracranial pressure (headache, vertigo, nausa, convulsions, mental confusion)
2) symptoms associated with the disturbance of particular brain functions.
(viral infections) pantropic viruses
attack other body tissues in addition to the CNS (mumps, herpes simplex).
(bacterial infections) bactrium
any microorganism that has no chlorophyll and multiples by simple division. usually go through the bloodstream to the CNS.
(bacterial infections) brain abscesses
produced by a variety of bacteria, secondary to infection elsewhere in the body.
invasion of the nervous system by a fungus. CNS is highly resistent but may invade the brain if CNS is weakened by other diseases (cancer).
(parasitic infestations) parasite
an organism that lives on/within another living organism at its expense.
(parasitic infections) amebiasis
caused by an infestation of the protozoan ameba and result sin encephalitis and brain abscesses.
(parasitic infections) malaria
caused by protozoa of the genus plastmodium wich are transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes. infects the capillaries of the brain, producing local hemorrhages and the subsequent degeneration of neurons.
treatment of infections
viral = difficult to treat, must let it run its corse.
rabies = fatal if not treated right away over a 2-4week period.
bacterial cerebral infactions = antibodic drugs make them less common.
- may be necessary to drain abscesses to relieve intracranial pressure or spinal taps.