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BIOL- 2401 Noll Review Exam 3
Terms in this set (233)
medial longitudinal, lateral longitudinal, transverse
What are the three Arches of the foot
(skeleton) adult skeleton is composed of 206 nones
gives the body flexibility and allows movement
bone ends are covered with cartilage
(joint) where two bones meet
Dense, strong bands of fibrous tissue that connect the bones to bone
206 total bones
The adult skeleton has
skull, vertebral column, rib cage, coccyx, sacrum
shoulder, girdle, arms, hands pelvic girdle, legs and feet
female pelvis is larger and broader the male pelvis, which is taller narrower, and more compact.
Difference between male and female pelvis
bones are the internal framework that supports and anchors all soft organs
protection-of soft organs
bones of skull protect the brain; vertebrae protect the spinal cord; the rib cage protects the organs of thoracic cavity and upper part of kidneys
storage-of fats and minerals
yellow marrow is fat storage and is a fuel source; bones also store minerals like calcium and phosphorus
Hematopoiesis takes place in red bone marrow
All Blood Cells
are synthesized in bone
Connects muscle to bone
movements- due to attached skeletal muscles
this is nit really a function of bone; muscles contract causing bone movement bones are levers
found mainly in the diaphysis or the shaft of long bones. 80% of total bone mass
found mainly in epiphysis or end of long bones and in flat bones. Bone is hard, 20% of total mass
longer than they are wide (ex. femur)
length and width about equal, small seed shaped
thin and curved bone; serves as a point of attachment for muscles and protects internal organs
flat thin surface, vertebrae and facial bones
round bones found near joints (e.g., the patella)
functional unit of compact bone
during development, much of the cartilage us replaced with bone. Is made up of Hyaline Cartilage
Articulation/ Epiphyseal Plates
cartilage remains in isolated areas such as the bridge of the nose, parts of the ribs, the ends of long bones?
bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage. Called Bone Formation within the Cartilage.
Produces flat bones of skull and clavicle, bone develops from a fibrous membrane
bone forming cells
mature bone cells
central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone
Except for __________________, most bones form from Hyaline Cartilage via endochondral ossification.
primary ossification center
secondary ossification center
Longitudinal growth of a long bone:
Is primarily controlled by the growth hormone (GH). Occurs at the epiphyseal plate.
Bones are remodeled
a process which uses both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and lengthen until growth stops. This cessation of the growth in bone length often occurs at puberty but can occur as late as the early 20's
growth in width
Bones change shape
somewhat and bones grow WIDTH/Diameter as they grow in length.
process through which adult bone can change in density, strength, and sometimes shape.
a major factor in the remodeling process, especially making bone stronger.
a dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping the bones except at the surfaces of the joints.
membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone
being able to support some percentage of the body's weight (mass, load), as in full weight bearing (able to support 100% of the body's weight)
are defined as chemical/molecules released from one cell into blood stream which can affect other cells far away.
Growth Hormone (GH)
anterior pituitary gland; stimulates growth of bones
insulin like growth factors produced in liver, GH dependent
Thyroid Hormone (TH)
Secreted by thyroid gland and stimulates bone growth by influencing the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of bone cells
estrogen and testosterone
female and male sex hormones
steroid hormone released by the adrenal cortex, regulates blood glucose levels. Cortisol and Cortisone.
cortisol and cortisone
Glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenal cortex. High prolonged use can increase bone and connective tissue loss, and in children impairs bone growth at epi plate.
A neurotransmitter for nervous system, appears to play a role in rate and regulation of normal bone remodeling since it effects osteoblast.
A hormone of the parathyroid gland that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body when blood calcium levels drop below 8.9mg
active form of vitamin D
a hormone produced by the parafollicular cells of the TG when blood calcium levels rise above 10.1mg
Calcium is Essential for Life
Maintaining good levels between 8.9 and 10.1 is essential for the initiation of muscle contraction, stimulation of the heart by pacemaker cells for normal neuron activity and blood clotting.
What do bones stored in excess and release back into blood stream when levels drop?
Calcitriol, Parathyroid Hormone
What are the two primary hormones controlled by blood calcium levels?
1. Ultraviolet sunlight converts 7- Dehydrocholesterol circulating in the blood into vitamin D3
2. Vitamin D3 in the blood is converted by liver enzymes into Calcidiol.
3. Calcidiol in the blood is converted by kidney enzymes into calcitriol which is active form of Vitamin D3.
Activation of Vitamin D to Calcitriol
In its active form of Calcitriol what has the unique function of stimulating absorption of calcium ions from the small intestine and into blood stream?
The body attempting to homeostatically maintain blood calcium levels at 8.9 to 10.1 can be an example of what?
occurs in bone that has been weakened by disease
realignment of broken bone ends
What broken bone stays inside the skin, realignment is performed by feel, by eye, and if possible xray analysis of the final work?
What broken bone penetrates through the skin?
using a splint and or hardened cast.
How to immobilize broken bone?
1. formation of fracture hematoma
2. fibrocartilaginous callus formation
3. bony callus formation
4. bone remodeling
Stages of broken bone repair?
Fibro-Cartilage Callus formation
Is much like the final healing process much like the bone formation from the embryonic hyaline cartilage skeleton model?
What is hollow portions of cranial and facial bones surrounding the nasal cavity? It also funtions to lighten the skull and aid in amplifying the souds made as words spoken.
What is a U-shaped bone in the neck that supports the tongue does not articulate with other bones?
What is the Soft spots on a baby's skull called?
What is thoracic and sacral are formed during fetal development
Cervical and lumbar curves; not born with these curves?
Excessive outward curvature of the spine, causing hunching of the back?
An abnormal, inward curvature of a portion of the lower portion of the spine?
An abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
A rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage, which allows the contents to protrude through it, putting pressure on the spinal nerve roots?
Is a pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve, caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots?
Pes planus (flat foot)
collapsed arch of the foot
swelling of the joint at the base of the great toe caused by inflammation of the bursa
Pes Cavus (high arch)
increase in depth of medial longitudinal arch and may be caused by muscle imbalances
talipes equinovarus (clubfoot)
Foot inverted and sole turned medially
Metatarsal Stress Fracture
results from repetitive pressure, runners especially prone
extra fingers or toes
Absence of any number of digits
webbed fingers or toes
congenital absence of one or more limbs
absence of part of a limb
short, poorly formed limb
A mild tranquilizer that, taken early in pregnancy, can produce a variety of malformations of the limbs, eyes, ears, and heart.
Joints; points where two bones meet.
Can be fibrous, cartilanginous, or synovial ?
no joint cavity, bones are held together by dense regular CT
no joint cavity bones held together by cartilage
has fluid, filled joint cavity that separates the articulating surface of the bones. connected by ligaments .
What refers to how flexible the joint is
Synarthroses (immovable joints)
Are very strong
Edges of bones may touch or interlock such as sutures on skull
amphiarthroses (slightly movable)
Some are cartilaginous joints while others are intervertebral. ex: the pubic symphysis and the intervertebral joints
Diarthosis (freely movable)
Is synovial joints of the limbs, most abundant of all joints.
What joint is comprised of a double layered articular capsule?
Fibrous outer layer
primary dense connective tissue
inner layers, primary areolar CT. It secretes synovial fluid which fills the joint cavity within the articular capsule.
connective tissue structure that encloses the joint cavity of a synovial joint
thin layer of cartilage covering the bone in the joint space
reduces friction, acts as a spongy cushion to absorb compression, prevents damage to the ends of the articulating bones.
What is the importance of articular cartilage?
Secretion of synovial membranes that lubricates joints and nourishes articular cartilage. acts like a shock absorber
ligaments that are outside of and physically separate from the joint capsule
thickening of the articular capsule itself
include ligaments outside and within the joint capsule
a fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones that is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid
elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon
are often located along the periphery of a synovial joint. They provide some protection for the joint especially when the bones move and the joint cavity changes shape.
ball and socket
localized chest pain
inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction
inflammation of tendon sheaths
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
pain in the jaw often due to clenching or grinding teeth
dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint
Dislocation of glenohumeral joint
the head of the humerus dislocates out of the glenoid cavity
The shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint)
This joint has a extensive ROM but it make the joint much more subject to injury. Not very strong only held together by muscle and tendons.
hip or coxal joint
What is very strong but has a much more limited Rom when compared to the Glenohumeral joint?
1. Tearing of the tibial collateral ligament
2.Tearing of the Medial Meniscus
3. Tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament
When the knee is impacted from the lateral aspect and is driven medially, three specific injuries often occur to the knee joint?
An injury in which the ligaments holding bones together are stretched too far and tear.
fracture of the fibula, with injury of the medial malleolus of the tibial articulation
painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints.
inflammation and painful swelling of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body quite often in the big toe
degenerative joint disease. wear and tear
a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked. Can lead to deformities and joints that often fuse together.
1. produces movement
2. maintains posture
3. stabilizes joints
4. generates heat
5.storage and movement of materials
6. protection and support
Functions of muscles
Contract or shorten something in the body in moved
What is the main action of the muscle?
Three Basic Muscle Types
Muscle cells =
striated and voluntary like a hot dog
Involuntary muscle tissue found only in the heart.
Involuntary muscle found inside many internal organs of the body
1.Actin -Thin Filament
2. Myosin- thick filament
The ability of muscles to shorten depends on two types of Protein Myofilaments
Contraction of the muscle is due to movement of _______________ sliding past each other via sliding filament theory?
What is 40% of the body mass
All muscle share some terminology, what prefixes refer to muscles
What prefix refers to flesh
Connective tissue surrounding a muscle fiber
Connective tissue surrounding a fascicle which is a bundle of muscle fiber
surrounds entire muscle becomes either tendon or an aponeuroses.
on the outside of the epimysium
Connects muscle to bone
a tendon that takes the form of a thin flattened sheet of dense irregular tissue
found between adjacent muscles
separates muscle from skin
What are the characteristics of Skeletal Muscle?
Skeletal muscle fibers are formed from embryonic cells called
myoblasts that do not fuse together but remain in the skeletal muscle tissue, they can be used to a minor extent for repair and regeneration of injured skeletal muscle
Cell are ______________ the nuclei are just beneath the sarcolemma
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which stores, releases, and retrieves Ca++ for muscle contraction
plasma membrane of a muscle cell
A long, filamentous organelle found within muscle cells that has a banded appearance
contractile unit of a muscle fiber,
also called Titin
May act as a ruler, to set the length of the thin filament when the sarcomere is being assembled `
The genetic disorder Muscular Dystrophy is caused by the abnormal structure or amount of the dystrophin protein.
skeletal muscle cells
What in the body must be stimulated by nerves in order to contract muscle?
A motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle cells it stimulates.
Can also be called a Synaptic Cleft, what is a gap or space between the axon terminal end bulb/knob of the motor neuron and the muscle cell?
motor end plate
area on the muscle cell axon terminal end bulb /knob connects is called a
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
What always stimulates skeletal muscles to contract?
muscle contraction after death due to lack of ATP
muscle fiber contraction
All or none phenomenon
different degrees of skeletal muscle shortening
A single brief contraction, not normal muscle function?
Tetanus (summing of contractions)
One contraction is immediately followed by another
The muscle does not completely return to a resting state
The effects are added
unfused (incomplete) tetanus
Some relaxation occurs between contractions. The results are summed
fused (complete) tetanus
No evidence of relaxation before the following contractions
The result is a sustained muscle contraction
When a muscle is fatigued, it is less able to what?
A believed common reason for muscle fatigue is
Appears to make the muscle tissue more acidic and less able to contract?
the difference between the resting rate of oxygen consumption and the elevated rate following an exercise. Characterized by heavy breathing during and after exercise.
muscle shortens because muscle tension exceeds load
Muscle contracts but there is no movement, muscle stays the same length
the state of balanced muscle tension that makes normal posture, coordination, and movement possible
Is attained due to the muscle being attached to pulling on, and moving a bone
attachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during muscular contraction
attachment to movable bone
Since muscle can only be actively contracted (shorten) skeletal muscles are arranged in what way so the opposing movements such as flexion- extension and abduction can occur?
increase in muscle size
weight lifting adds more actin and myosin filaments in existing skeletal muscle cells/fibers
increase in muscle size bulkier and larger
a limited increase in the number of skeletal muscle fibers
increase in muscle efficiency
running adds more mitochondria in existing skeletal muscle cells/fibers
A synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some of its effects.
intramuscular injection of 5 mls or less
myasthenia gravis (MG)
autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles
a reduction in muscle size and bulk, often due to lack of use
replacement of muscle cells with dense regular fibrous ct, often due to injury , aging and or lack of use
contracts in a corkscrew fashion
an injection into deep muscle tissue, usually of the buttock, thigh, or upper arm
Underlying nerves arteries and veins
paralysis of the facial nerve, causing muscular weakness in one side of the face.
= cause unknown
herpes simplex 1
Recurring viral infection that often presents as a fever blister or cold sore. stress can cause them to appear
Recovery from this is just as mysterious as the cause
What percentage of people does bells palsy just go away. Others it never does
crossed eyes, both eyes do not track together
How many skeletal muscles control each eye. 4 rectus and 2 obliques
Either not enough space in uterus or a difficult delivery. Being kept in a infant carseat over long periods of time
what can cause Congenital Muscular Torticollis?
(CMT) Congenital Muscular Torticollis
is a rare congenital musculoskeletal disorder characterized by unilateral shortening of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It presents in newborn infants or young children.
cutting the muscle
Treatments of Congenital Muscular Toricollis
In infants with soft skills wryneck or CMT condition can lead to
flattening of head
weakening in the pelvic cavity, Relatively common in males. Which allow intestine to slip through.
rotator cuff muscles
are four muscles supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis that pull the head of the humerus toward the midline and that help to hold arm on
Tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis)
twisting and torqueing of the arm, can show up in throwing arms of pitchers.
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
repetitive hand motion can cause soft tissue swelling in the wrist, which pinches on the median nerve causing tingling and pain
the feeling of pins and needles
Flexor retinaculum (transverse carpal ligament)
forms the roof of the carpal tunnel, which contains flexor tendons and the median nerve
Pain and inflammation in the anterior lower leg, often associated with running or working out on hard surfaces.
Swelling in a confined space that produces dangerous pressure; may cut off blood flow or damage sensitive tissue.
an inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot.
sole of foot
Some causes of plantar fasciitis
-muscle contraction squeezes veins-forces blood to heart. mechanical pump
blood clots in lower extremities
Sitting to long can cause
Is imperative to human health
systolic blood pressure
the pressure created when the heart contracts and forces blood out into the arteries
diastolic blood pressure
Pressure in the arteries when the heart relaxes and ventricles fill with blood
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