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Science Test 3/29
Terms in this set (86)
Nitrogen 78% and Oxygen 21%
carbon dioxide, argon and water vapor
solids such as dust, salt, ice and microorganisms found in the atmosphere
Layers of the atmosphere in order
1. Troposphere 2. Stratosphere 3. Mesosphere 4. Thermosphere 5. Exosphere
Layer closet to Earth most of the atmosphere's mass, weather occurs here, temperatures as low as -60 degrees Celsius
2nd layer of atmosphere; extends from 10 to 30 miles up; location of ozone layer; absorbs 95% of Ultraviolet radiation; temperature increases with altitude increase.
the air temperature decreases with altitude there is very little solar radiation is absorbed in this layer, the top is where the temperature stops decreasing with the height and it is called the mesopause
Low density of air causes the temperature to rise, temperatures reach up to 200 degrees celsius, the ionosphere which is made up of electrically charge d particles is part of the thermosphere
The outer layer of the thermosphere, extending outward into space.
What are "pauses" in the atmosphere?
Within each layer temperature either goes up or down Boundaries between layers are defined by where temperature stays about the same with height.
The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching.
The transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas
The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
Fluids move from areas of ____________ _____________ to areas of ____________ _____________________
Fluids move from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure
__________ moving fluids create _____________ pressure
fast moving fluids create low pressure
How does pressure play a role in generating winds?
The winds move from areas of high pressure to low pressure
How are winds affected by altitude?
wind moves faster at higher altitudes and there is friction at lower altitude
What are the conditions needed for cloud formation
The vapor rises until it reaches a low enough temperature and pressure to condense water vapor into water droplets and form a blank. When vapor condenses into liquid or solid particles, it loses some of its energy to the air.
Microscopic particles on which water vapor condenses to form cloud droplets.
Condensation nuclei may be:
particles of dust, nitric acid particles, smoke from forest fires, and salt from the ocean.
characteristics of stable air masses
settled calm conditions
characteristics of unstable air masses
looking for right altitude violent weather event
occurs when an air mass is forced to rise over a topographic barrier.
occurs when air masses move into the same area from different directions. Then some of the air is pushed upward. This process is even more pronounced when air masses at different temp collide
piles of cloud, fluffy, cottony shape
spread out layer
wispy, fine → → ice crystals
Where does precipitation happen?
Low level clouds
Stratus, Cumulus, Cumulonimbus, Stratocumulus, and Nimbostratus
Altostratus, Cumulonimbus, and Altocumulus
Cirrocumulus, Cumulonimbus, Cirrus, and Cirrostratus
Radiation from the sun causes water to evaporate from lakes, streams, and oceans and rise into the atmosphere.
As the water vapor rises, it cools and condenses to form clouds
Then the water vapor inside the cloud becomes rain and falls to the ground.
one-way that cloud droplets can increase in size. In a warm cloud, coalescence is the primary process responsible for the formation of precipitation. Coalescence occurs when cloud droplets collide and join together to form a larger droplet.
What are the causes of weather
mT, cT, mP, cP, Arctic
Origins - tropical bodies of water
Brings hot, humid weather to the eastern ⅔ of North America in the summer
Origins - the southwestern U.S. and Mexico
Hot and very dry, especially in the summer
Origins - the cold waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific
Brings heavy rains in the winter
Origins - the interior of Canada and Alaska
Carries frigid air southward in the winter
Cool and relatively dry in the summer
Origins - Earth's ice and snow-covered surfaces
Above 60°N in Siberia and the Arctic Basin
Brings the most frigid temperatures during the winter
Why do Global Winds happen
is caused by the uneven heating of Earth's surface, which sets convection currents in motion. Convection currents on a large scale cause
Causes moving air and water to turn left in the southern hemisphere and turn right in the northern hemisphere due to Earth's hemisphere and creates global winds with the imbalance of heat
Between latitudes 30 degrees N and 30 degrees S are two circulation belts(Hadley Cells) of wind air in these regions sink and move toward the equator in an Easterly direction
are regions of high pressure and gentle winds at about 30 degrees north and south latitude, Earth's major deserts such as these are under these
Intertropical Convergence zone. Belt of low pressure around the equator. formed by the vertical ascent of warm, moist air from the latitudes north and south of the equator. Lots of precipitation.
Wind System located between 30 degrees North and 30 degrees South
Mid Latitudes surface winds move in a westerly direction toward each pole
Steady Winds that move most of the weather across the United States and Canada or called Westerlies
The wind zones between 60 degrees N latitude and 60 degrees S latitude
Typically cold winds
Often weak and sporadic
Earth had 2 polar fronts 60 degrees N + S
Are areas of stormy weather or called Easterlies
a frequently windless area near the Equator
is a narrow band of fast wind. It speeds varies with the temperature differences between the air masses at the wind zone boundaries
The position of a jet stream varies with the season
flows straight when strong and curvy when weak
Polar Jet Stream
Which jet stream affects Canada and N. America's weather
How do airplanes interact with jet streams
It makes them go faster when going East but, slower if they try and go upstream and go West
averages over a 30 year period
4 types of fronts
cold front, occluded front, warm front, and stationary front
the cold air forces the warm air up along a steep slope. As the warm air rises, it cools and water vapor condenses
the advancing warm air displaces cold air. This develops a gradual boundary slope
two air masses meet, but neither advances. The boundary between them stalls. This occurs between two modified air masses with small temp. and pressure differences.
a cold air mass moves so rapidly that it overtakes a warm front. The cold air mass forces the warm air upward. The cold air mass then collides with a cold air mass that was in front of the warm air.
Weather variable of Cold Front
violent precipitation and thunderstorms
Weather variable of Warm Front
widespread light precipitation
Weather variable of Stationary Front
calm maybe light rain
Weather variable of occluded Front
heavy winds and precipitation
Cold front on weather map
a blue line with evenly spaced blue triangles (the blue triangles point in the direction that the front is moving)
Warm front on weather map
a red line with evenly spaced red semicircles (the semicircles point in the direction that the front is moving)
Stationary front on weather map
a line of alternating cold and warm front symbols pointing in opposite directions
Occluded front on weather map
a line of alternating purple triangles and semicircles (these point in the direction that the front is moving)
High Pressure symbol
a large, blue capital "h" (H)
Low Pressure symbol
a large, red capital "l" (L)
what is a depression (cyclone)
created when air moves in a counterclockwise motion at a low pressure system
what type of weather is associated with a depression (cyclone)?
cloudy, rainy conditions
what is an anticyclone?
created when air moves in a clockwise motion at a high pressure system
what type of weather is associated with an anticyclone?
clear, cloudless skies; frost, dew
uses rotation, cupped arms to measure the speed of the wind
placed in space these are often equipped with cameras to take pictures of Earth at regular intervals
radio detection and ranging; detects specific location of precipitation
Doppler radar site
used by meteorologists to determine the speed at which precipitation moves toward or away from a radar station
a depiction of weather data for a particular location at a particular time
lines of equal pressure on a map
uses wet-bulb and dry-bulb to measure relative humidity
measures temperature in degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius
a radio transmitter suspended from a helium or hydrogen balloon that measures conditions in the upper atmosphere
used by satellites to make observations at night; can map cloud cover or surface temperatures
lines of equal temperature on a map
measures changes in atmospheric pressure
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