The length of the spine accounts for ____% of the length throughout life.
Spine is fully ossified by age....
Cartilaginous end plates are highly vascular through age _____
Annulus of discs are highly vascular up to age ______
Preschool: 1% Elementary Age: 6% High School: 18% Adult*: 20%
What age groups typically experience spinal pain?
Acute trauma <5 yoa Limb weakness Fever Radiating pain Weight loss >4 weeks duration Night waking
What are the red flags of pediatric spinal pain?
5. Due to fat pad.
Pes planus is normal up to age ....
by 2yoa with walking.
When is a foot arch visible?
6-8 years of age.
When does a child have a normal arch typically?
Conservative Flexible flat foot typically responsive to conservative care. Exercises including - rolling foot on broom handle, picking up marbles with toes, gastroc/soleus stretch if flat foot with toe out. Medical: Orthotics
Waxing and waning symptoms which progress to motor weakness, gait alterations or muscle rigidity.
Pain is present in 25-60% of cases.
Spinal cord tumors typically present with what history and symptoms?
Bacterial discitis is most common between the ages of 1-5. It typically progresses over 2-4 weeks.
Bacterial discitis is most common between the ages of _______. It typically progresses over _________ weeks.
Signs: Pronation of arm and refusal to use. Exam Findings: Tenderness over anteromedial aspect of radial head. Diminished/painful supination. Normal x-ray. US may reveal increased radiocapitular distance.
What are the symptoms and exam findings for a nursemaids elbow?
Adjust for immediate relief. In order to put it back into place, supinate child's arm and bring it in front of them. With forearm fully supinated, fully extend and then fully flex the arm. It should click into place.
How do we treat nursemaids elbow?
28% of 12-15 yo have HA 1 time per week
How common is a headache in children?
1. Acute or progressive 2. lethargy 3. Mood/personality changes 4. Declining academics 5. Papilledema 6. Paralysis 7. Drowsiness 8. Confusion or loss of conciousness
What are the symptoms for a space occupying lesion?
Similar to tumor and inflammation symptoms.
1. Worse when laying down 2. Papilledema 3. Optic nerve pallor
What are the symptoms of increased intracranial pressure?
Sitting or standing
Decreased intracranial pressure will be worse when...