Terms in this set (55)
Resistance to disease or infection
Two intrinsic defense systems
Innate and adaptive
Nonspecific defense mechanisms that come into play immediately or within hours of an antigen's appearance in the body. These mechanisms include physical barriers such as skin, chemicals in the blood, and immune system cells that attack foreign cells in the body.
one species is resistant to disease that affects another species, e.g. heartworms affect dogs but not humans
Second line of defense
includes phagocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, antimicrobial proteins, interferons, complement, fever, natural killer cells and inflammation.
white cells that engulf foreign invaders and destroy them through phagocytosis.
the passage of blood cells through the intact walls of the capillaries, typically accompanying inflammation.
first at the site of infection and most plentiful in blood; can engulf 20 bacteria
a leukocyte that can engulf 100 bacteria
these are released to protect the body against non-specific pathogens
a protein secreted by viral-infected cells to warn neighboring cells to prevent viral effects
a protein that circulates in the blood and works in cascades to stimualte inflammation when pathogens are detected.
elevated body temperature kills or denature pathogens
Natural killer cells
a type of lymphocytes that destroys cancer cells and virus infected cells
a localized swelling and redness in response to an injury, allergy or the destruction of tissues.
a specific defense system consisting of antibodies and lymphocytes, often called the humoral response or cell-mediated response; the third line of defense.
Two types of adaptive immunity
cellular or humoral defense
uses T-lymphocytes to carry out a direct message; kills pathogens in hand-to-hand combat.
uses B-lymphocytes to produce antibodies to carry out an indiect response to pathogens; kills pathogens indirectly like a bomb.
a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
IgA, IgG, IgM, IgD, IgE
the anitbody which defends against bacteria, viruses and toxins; activates complements.
the antibody that defends against bacteria and viruses found in breast milk.
the antibody that reacts with antigens on red blood cells.
the antibody that activates B cells for immunity.
the antibody that promotes inflammation and allergic reactions.
Cells of the adaptive immune system
B-lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte white blood cells
white blood cell used in humoral immunity, 25% of circulating lymphocytes in the blood
white blood cells used in cellular immunity, 75% of circulating lymphocytes in the blood
Antigen presenting cells (APC)
macrophages and dendritic cells which engulf pathogen and isolate antigenm, present antigen to T-cells for recognition, and play essential auxiliary roles in immunity.
Lymphocyte development, maturation, and activation
these originate in the bone marrow, mature in the thymus for T cells or in the marrow for B cells, activate secondary lymphoid organs and circulation, antigen binding and activation, while also promoting proliferation and differentiation.
hormone that encourages the growth of T cells.
when lymphocytes only attacks the foreign designated cell and not cells in rest of the body
Proliferation and differentiation
Activated lymphocytes proliferate (multiply) and then differentiate into effector cells and memory cells which circulate continuously in the circulatory and lymphatic systems
Memory T-helper cells
provide for future immune protection. Upon subsequent exposure, this cell immediately divides and differentiates into a cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.
these enter other tissues and kill anything that does not have a self recognition tag; remain in body as NK cell at low levels to police the system and kill cancer cells and virus invaded cells.
this is produced when an infection is nearly cleared to lower levels of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.
this can bind with an antigen directly from pathogen or toxin.
these can stimulate the production of B lymphocytes
pathogen monitors that maintains the ability to recognize specific antigen.
a fully differentiated B cell that produces a single type of antibody.
Types of humoral immunity
active immunity and passive immunity
the immunity within yourself which results from the production of antibodies by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen.
Natural active immunity
exposure to infection will cause immunity
Artificial active immunity
active antibodies offering immunity from another source, e.g. breast milk.
immunity passed from maternal antibodies to fetus
immunity injected through gamma globulin serum.
Diseases caused when the immune system loses tolerance for self and turns against certain molecules in the body; types include I, II, III, or IV.
Type I autoimmune disease
Type II autoimmune disease
cytotoxic or cytolytic, when antibodies cause cells to die, IgM and IgG
Type III autoimmune disease
the formation of immune complexes; antibodies bind to antigens but dont know what to do with them so they horde them.
Type VI autoimmune disease
causes a delayed reaction; activates cell-mediated immune response.
human immunodeficiency virus which invades helper T-cells; people with aids die from opportunistic infections
any of a group of proteins secreted by a number of cell types, including interferons, macrophages and helper T cells, that regulate the function of lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system.