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Civilizations of the Americas
Terms in this set (26)
List the main reasons why Classical Civilization did not develop in North America.
1. Harsh winters
2. Natural environment provided everything they needed
3. Lots of space
List the similarities of the civilized societies and economies across historical eras in Mesoamerica and South America.
1. No large livestock
2. Ethnic separation of social classes
3. Use of religion to rule the state
The earliest evidence of Olmec Civilization dates to between
List the 3 reasons that so little is known about the Olmec Era of Civilization.
1. Very few surviving images
2. No existing codex for the written language
3. No mention of them after the Mayan
The surviving evidence of Olmec Civilization are the ruins of...
Chalcatzingo (largest city) and megalithic heads
List the main cultural and social characteristics of the Maya
1. Ethnically exclusive
2. Militantly religious
3. Highly organized 16. Militaristic hierarchy
List the main characteristics of the Mayan city-state kingdoms that developed in the late 400s and 500s AD
1. Fiercely independent
2. Strictly ordered by social class
3. Massive temples and palace complexes
4. Constant religious practice
5. Well regulated markets that used money
in the far north of the Yucatan--is a tourist attraction today.
in the central highlands of the Campeche region of southeastern Mexico--the most powerful of the kingdoms in the 500s AD.
in the western jungles of Campeche--the longest surviving city-state kingdom of the Maya, and center of power and diplomacy well into the 700s AD
in the Peten region of northern Guatemala--a city-state kingdom of great wealth and influence until drought forced the city to be abandoned.
List the scientific advances made by the Maya during their Classical Age
1. Decimal based number system
2. Use of the golden mean
3. Solar calendar (based on the movements of the sun)
List the main reasons for the decline of the Mayan city-state kingdoms and the abandoning of most of the cities
1. Catastrophic drought
2. Invasion by the Toltec
List the characteristics of Mayan Ball
1. Use as means to settle disputes without war
2. No hands game with a vertical goal
3. Public spectacle
The Toltec people are from among the linguistic family of...
the larger of the two and the name of which means "place of the gods".
the second seat of power, and the regional center for trade in the Toltec Empire
List the main characteristics of the Toltec State and society
1. Ethnically inclusive
2. Culturally adaptive
3. Militantly religious
List the 3 principal Toltec gods
List the physical and social characteristics of the Aztec
1. Bigger and strong
2. Ultra and ethnically exclusive
How did the Aztec ruling class build the Imperial State according to ethnicity and social class?
Enslaving and conquering
Who did all the work in the Aztec Empire?
List the Mayan and Toltec advances and technologies adapted by the Aztec.
1. Number system
2. Solar calendar
What was the massive Aztec capital city, and where was it built?
List the characteristics of the Aztec Imperial State that caused decline between 1450 and the arrival of the Spanish in 1520.
1. Weak Emperors
2. Labor shortages
3. Loss of authority in the territories of the capital
What was the most effective weapon the Spanish brought with them from Europe that helped them conquer the Aztec Empire in the 1500s?
Disease/ Natives were not immune
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