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Pharmacology Test Guide for test 3/13/2014
Terms in this set (78)
Conditions or factors that make the use of a drug inadvisable or dangerous
Routes of administration (know 10)
Oral, Sub-lingual, Buccal, Inhalation, Intraarticular
Rectal, Vaginal, Urethral, Intrathecal
Topical, Transdermal, Drops
Parenteral - Intradermal, Intramuscular, Intravenous, Subcutanaeous
What is ASA?
acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
What does a drug manufacturer do?
Compounds chemicals together in various forms to create medications
What are drug activities?
The measure of the physiological response that a drug produces. A less active drug produces less response, and a more active drug produces more active drug produces more response
What are the factors that affect drug activity? (know 2 of them)
Age & size of patient; Body weight; Pregnancy; Time of administration; Rate of detoxification; Hypersensitivity/allergy conditions; Drug interactions; Race
What is an adverse reaction?
An unexpected reaction to a drug that may endanger the patient's health and safety (e.g. anaphylaxis)
What is pharmacodynamics?
The study of how drugs interact in the human body
What is toxicology?
The study of poisons, their detection, their effects, and the establishment of antidotes and treatments for the conditions poisons produce, as well as the prevention of poisoning
what are 3 "types" used to describe pain?
Threshold--How much it takes for one to notice/acknowledge pain
Perception--Sensation of pain - e.g. sharp, infrequent
Tolerance--How much pain one can handle
What are systemic medicines?
Drugs that have a widespread influence on the body because they are easily and quickly absorbed into the bloodstream
gram = unit of ?
weight (1 gm equals the weight of a paper clip)
liter = unit of ?
meter = unit of ?
How many mL or cc in 1 L ?
How many cm in a meter ?
How many g in 1 kg ?
1000 (equals 1000 paper clips or dollar bills)
How many mg in 1 g ?
1000 (equals 1,000th of a gram or paper clip)
How many mcg in 1 mg ?
1000 (equals 1,000,000th of a gram or paper clip)
4 items required for medication orders:
name of drug, dosage of drug, route of administration, and frequency of administration
quantities < 0 require what ?
a leading zero (e.g. 0.25 mg)
1 drop of water =
60 minims =
1 fluid dram
8 fluid drams =
1 fluid ounce (16 oz = 1 pint; 8 pints = 1 gallon)
1 grain =
weight of 1 grain of rice or wheat
Medication label: National Drug Code
begins with NDC usually
Medication label: controlled drug?
DEA code (starts with "D-", class shown within a capital "C"
Medication label: Brand name?
First letter capitalized (usually)
Medication label: generic name
all lower case (usually)
Medication label: dosage strength?
amount of active ingredient found in the medication
Medication label: # of doses in bottle?
Medication label: route of administration?
assumed or explicit?
Medication label: form?
assumed or explicit?
Medication label: cautions/precautions?
Medication label: expiration/beyond use date?
Medication label: auxilliary info?
anything that doesn't have to do with patient administration
Medication label: Manufacturer?
Medication label: reconstitution instructions?
What are TJC "Do Not Use" abbreviations ?
all forms of U, IU, QD, QOD, trailing zero or lack of leading zero, MS, MSO4, MgSO4
drugs are classified or categorized according to their primary or main effects in the body
medications by action
the means by which a drug exerts a desired effect; drugs are usually classified by their actions
Relieves pain; aspirin or Tylenol
Partially or completely numbs or eliminates sensitivity with or without loss of consciousness; Novacaine
Correct irregular heartbeats; Propranolol
Stops or controls the growth of infection-causing microorganisms; Bactrim
Prevents clots continuation or formation; Lovenox
Prevents or relieves convulsions; Klonopin
Prevents, cures, or alleviates mental depression; Prozac
Helps control the blood sugar level; Glucophage
Prevents or treats diarrhea; Imodium
Suppresses the formation of urine; Vasopressin
Prevents or relieves nausea and vomiting; Phenergan
Destroys or inhibits the growth of fungus; Monistat
Opposes the action of histamine, which is released in allergic reactions; Benedryl
Prevents or control high blood pressure; Cardizem
Stops or controls the growth of infection-causing microorganisms; Amoxicillin
Counteracts inflammation in the body; Aleve
.Prevents the development growth or reproduction of cancerous cells; Tamoxifen
Relieves cough due to various causes; Robitussin
Treat and prevents peptic ulcer and gastric hypersecretion; Prevacid
Treats various viral conditions such as serious herpes infection chickpox or influenza A; Valtrex
Treats hypertnesion angina or various abnormal heart rhythms; Occupress
Expands the bronchial tubes by relaxing the bronchial muscles; Theophylline
Calcium channel blocker
Treats hypertension angina and various abnormal heart rhythms; Vascor
Increases the quantity of urine secretion; Lasix
Treats deficiency states where specific hormone level is abnormally low; Premarin
Induces sleep or dulls the senses; Seconal
Suppresses the body's natural immune response to an antigen; Decadron
Prevents constipation or promotes the emptying of the bowel contents with ease; Miralax
Lipid lowering agent
Reduces blood lipid (fat) levels; Lipitor
An agent for quieting the nervous system; exerts a soothing or tranquilizing effect on the body; Valium
Skeletal muscle relaxant
Relieves muscle tension; Flexeril
Prevents and treats vitamin deficiencies and used as a dietary supplement; vitamin B12
skeletal; lymphatic/immune; integumentary; musculo; respiratory; nervous; circulatory; urinary; reproductive; endocrine; digestive (SLIM RN CURED)
endocrine; eyes and ears; integumentary; musculoskeletal; gastrointestinal; respiratory; circulatory/cardiovascular; urinary tract; reproductive system; nervous system
Drugs used in treating infectious diseases
antibiotics, antibacterials, antivirals, antifungals, antiparasitics, antibiotics orphan drugs
big, medium, small circle
antimicrobial (means that the substance kills or inhibits the growth of microbes - minute organisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses; antibacterial (means destroying or inhibiting the growth of bacteria - all antibacterial are antimicrobial); antibiotics (are derived from bacterial sources and are used to treat bacterial infections - all antibiotics are both antibacterial and antimicrobial)
Forms of drugs/medications
Solids: powders, capsules, caplets, pills, tablets, troches or lozenges, pulvules
Liquids: fluid extracts, tinctures, elixirs, solutions, emulsions, syrups, liniment, spirits, milks, suspensions, gels, mixtures, ampules
Misc: ointments, pastes, creams, inhalants/sprays, suppositories, controlled release, transdermal patches, implants, infusion pumps, isotopes
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